Hydrogels are cross-linked hydrophilic polymer networks that can contain a high amount of water. Their hydrated network architecture provides a place for cells to adhere, proliferate, and differentiate. They are generally nontoxic and biocompatible. In tissue engineering, hydrogels can be used to encapsulate living cells as a cell delivery system and as a scaffold for tissue regeneration. Moreover, hydrogels can be delivered to a target site in a minimally invasive manner. Nevertheless, the gelling process must be benign for cell survival and to avoid damage to
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Pei Ling Yeo, Chooi Ling Lim, Soi Moi Chye, Anna Pick Kiong Ling and Rhun Yian Koh
compartment [ 8 , 11 , 12 ]. Niosomes are vesicles of nonionic surfactant (for example, alkyl ester and alkyl ether) and cholesterol that act as a carrier for amphiphilic and lipophilic drugs [ 7 , 8 , 13 , 14 ]. Niosomes improve the therapeutic performance of encapsulated drug molecules by protecting the drug from harsh biological environments, resulting in their delayed clearance [ 15 ].
Novel drug development is both time consuming and expensive. The development of a new drug costs an estimated $120 million, and the journey from discovery, clinical testing, and
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21. Venkataraman S, Hedrick JL, Ong ZY, et al. The effects of polymeric nanostructure shape on drug delivery
Tiberiu Bratu, Anca Dinu, Mihai Sandesc, Sonia Elena Popovici, Razvan Gabriel Dragoi, Amaricai Elena and Dorel Sandesc
: shape-selective liberation of encapsulated guests. J Am Chem Soc 1995; 117:4417-4418
21. Venkataraman S, Hedrick JL, Ong ZY, et al. The effects of polymeric nanostructure shape on drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2011; 63:1228-1246
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Amrit Rai, Josphine Jenifer and Ravi Theaj Prakash Upputuri
nature, liposomes are well suited for drug delivery. Liposomes can be used as carriers for numerous types of molecules, for example to encapsulate antioxidants and biotic elements in drug delivery systems [ 9 ]. Liposome nanoparticles made from lipids or polymers could be constructed to improve the pharmacological and therapeutic potential of drugs [ 9 , 10 ]. Liposomes, can also be used as imaging agents [ 11 ]. The imaging moiety together with a drug-delivery function creates a theranostic agent (with combined diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities) [ 9 , 11 ]. An
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20. Jonas S, Bechstein WO, Steinmuller T, Herrmann M, Radke C, Berg T et al. Vascular invasion and histopathologic grading determine