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Urban / Rural Hybrids: The Urbanisation of Former Suburbs (Urfsurbs)

Abstract

In pace with changing social developments, cities undergo regular processes of transformation. Thus, following a temporary preference for suburban living, the inner city has for some years now been enjoying a residential renaissance. A further, as yet little noticed, trend is the urbanisation of former suburbs. Encompassing urbanisation and gentrification processes found in the inner-ring suburbs, this entails a breaking of established dichotomies and the development of hybrid phenomena that can be encapsulated in the acronym URFSURBS: ‘urbanisation of former suburbs’. Focusing on examples from Southern California and Greater Paris, this article places these developments in context and outlines their implications for future research.

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Optically stimulated luminescence techniques applied to the dating of the fall of meteorites in Morasko

temperatures of each surface segment. This leads to a non-homogeneous interaction of the meteorites and the sediments at the fall location. The thermal impact directly influences the environment, and, in particular cases, there is also a very shallow penetration of the meteorites’ molten matter in the sediments. Both processes result in the generation of sintering layers around the meteorites, and also “semi-fusion” layers in some parts (the encapsulation of mineral grains with the molten material matter of the meteorite). The meteorites’ presence in the ground causes

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Distribution of phenols related to self-heating and water washing on coal-waste dumps and in coaly material from the Bierawka river (Poland)

., & Brandvik, P. J. (2008). Distribution of water soluble components from oil encapsulated in Arctic sea ice: Summary of three field seasons. Cold Regions Science and Technology , 54(2), 106-114. DOI:10.1016/j.coldregions.2008.03.006. Faure, P., Elie, M., Mansuy, L., Michels, R., Landais, P., & Babut, M. (2004). Molecular studies of insoluble organic matter in river sediments from Alsace-Lorraine (France). Organic Geochemistry , 35(2), 109-122. DOI:10.1016/j.orggeochem.2003.10.008. Faure, P., Landais, P., Elie, M., Kruge, M., Langlois, E., & Ruau, O. (1999

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Method for Assessment of Changes in the Width of Cracks in Cement Composites with Use of Computer Image Processing and Analysis

scale-invariant keypoints, International Journal of Computer Vision, 2004, 60 (2), 91-110. [5] KANELLOPOULOS A., QURESHI T.S., AL-TABBAA A., Glass encapsulated minerals for self-healing in cement based composites, Construction and Building Materials, 2015, 98, 780-791. [6] PAWLIK P., MIKRUT S., Wyszukiwanie punktów charakterystycznych na potrzeby zdjęć lotniczych, Automatyka, 2006, 10 (3), 407-411. [7] SZELĄG M., FIC S., Analiza rozwoju spękań klastrowych w zaczynie cementowym modyfikowanym mikrokrzemionką, Budownictwo i

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The Study of Stages and Operations Involved in the Preservation and Restoration of two XIX-th Century Icons, on Wooden Support

Abstract

The paper presents the stages and the operations involved in the preservation and restoration of two icons on wooden support, from the XIX-th century, which are part of the heritage of the ”Sfinții Arhangheli Mihail and Gavriil” church, from Galați. The two icon have inventory numbers as part of the collection as followed: 112 for the first icon and 113 for the second one. Both icons have the same theme, ”The Grieving Mother from Rohia” and are made by anonymous painters in egg tempera, on lime wooden support, without ground. Being part of the same collection, they were deposited in the same place and as a direct consequence, they suffer from similar deteriorations and degradations that affect both the support and the painting layer. Both panels are attacked by xylophagous insects and the painting layer has detachments, gaps, cracks, clogged dirt and a cracked and degraded varnish layer. Ten samples taken from the already detached areas were analyzed by optical microscope, SEM-EDX and micro-FTIR. Based on the chemical elements identified in the EDX spectrums, the pigments used to create the painting layer are: ultramarine natural blue Na8-10Al6Si6O24S2-4, carbon black, earth green, K[(Al,FeIII),(FeII,Mg)](AlSi3,Si4)O10(OH)2, ocher (FeO), burned or natural umber Fe2O3· H2O + MnO2·n H2O+ Al2O3, lead white (2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2) and yellow iron oxide (Fe2O3·4H2O). It was also determined that the gold leaf usually used in byzantine icons was replaced in the case of both icons: the icon number 112 has silver leaf covered with varnish, while the halo of the icon number 113 was created with yellow metallic pigments (realgar or orpigment).The pigments were also identified by determining specific peaks in micro-FTIR spectrums. For natural ultramarine blue the peaks between 628 - 724 cm-1 were assigned; the peaks in the interval 795 - 887 cm-1 confirm the presence of carbonates (calcium and lead based). The earth green pigment (aluminum - silicates) had the peaks between 1464 - 1599, while the carbon black pigment was confirmed by the peaks in the interval 921 - 1060 cm-1. After the pigments and the materials used by the author were identified, the restoration process begun with the following stages: consolidation of the painting layer (fish glue 8% and japanese paper), stopping the xylophagous attack (encapsulation with nitrogen), consolidation of the wood supports (colophon and wax, 1:1), cleaning the painting layer (ethylic alcohol and distilled water, 1:1), filling the gaps and reintegrating the fillings in tratteggio, all followed by the process of varnishing the two icons.

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Multi-phase flow assessment for the fermentation process in mono-substrate reactor with skeleton bed

on oxygen distribution in islets organs. Transplantation. Vol. 57 p. 1308–1314. S kowron K., B auza -K aszewska J., K aczmarek A., B udzyńska A, G ospodarek E. 2015. Mikrobiologiczne aspekty gospodarki gnojowicą [Microbiological aspects of slurry management]. Postępy Mikrobiologii. T. 54. Nr 3 p. 235–249. U ludag H., de V os P., T resco P.A. 2000. Technology of mammalian cell encapsulation. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. Vol. 42. No. 1–2 p. 29–64. W ałowski G. 2017. Fenomenologiczne ujęcie hydrodynamiki przepływu gazu przez struktury

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Reinforcement of Underground Excavation with Expansion Shell Rock Bolt Equipped with Deformable Component

-56. [4] CAMPOLI A., OLDSEN J., WU R., Yielding bolt support for burst prone working, Proceedings of Seventh International Symposium: Rockbolting and Rock Mechanics in Mining, Aachen, 2012, 205-212. [5] CHARETTE F., PLOUFFE M., A new rock bolt concept for underground excavations under high stress conditions, Proceedings of 6th International Symposium on Ground Support in Mining and Civil Engineering Construction, Johannesburg, 2008, 225-240. [6] CHEN Y., LI C.C., Performance of fully encapsulated rebar bolts and D-Bolts under combined

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Powered Roof Support – Rock Strata Interactions on the Example of an Automated Coal Plough System

us to predict the deformation of longwall excavations at the distance of 100 m ahead of the face. The software encapsulates the statistical significance analyses of critical parameters impacting on the support loading ( Table 3 ). These parameters include Table 3 Statistical significance of model parameters. Effect Parameter evaluation: z sigma parameterisation with constraints Acceptance condition: p min ≥24 MPa, p max ≤42 MPa, t p ≤30 min Leg pressure factor Leg pressure, Standard error Leg pressure, t-value Leg

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German Cities in the World City Network
Some Observations

for such intercity research, all encapsulated in the call for the study of agency: To embrace innovation in the conceptual approach of studying inter-city relations by moving away from the firm and office/subsidiary as the main unit of analysis by considering the agency of the individual and the ways in which firms penetrate new markets through more flexible modes of ‘non-presence’ (e.g. strategic alliances/networks; franchises; business travel) rather than 100% wholly-owned subsidiaries and office complexes. To accept the qualitative approach as a means of

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Stadtentwicklung in der VR China — geschlossene und offene Phasen der Urbanisierung

the most distinctive feature of the danwei is its encapsulation as a community and social cell. In some cases, the physical Separation by brick walls is matched by an invisible Segregation as well ”. (20) Lii, Xiaobao Perry, Elizabeth J.: The Changing Chinese Workplace in Historical and Comparative Perspective. In: dies. (Eds.): Danwei. The Changing Chinese Workplace in Historical and Comparative Perspective. — Armonk, New York, London 1997, S. 317 Diese Einheiten können produktive bzw. profitorientierte Einheiten (qiye danwei) sein, etwa Produktions- oder

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