The winner takes it all? Multidimensional assessment of economic growth factors in Bundesländer
This paper seeks to offer a thorough assessment of current state of the play as well as developments taking place in 1989-2008 with respect to various determinants of economic growth in Germany. The primary aim is to evaluate the growth potential by constructing and consequently calculating the summary index encompassing various dimensions of economy. In order to take a holistic and comprehensive view on economic growth factors, conceptual framework of five modules encapsulating numerous factors and thus incorporating various growth aspects has been put forward. Competitiveness (production function), Sectors (output approach), Business cycle (expenditure approach), General economic condition (main macroindices) and Catalysts (residual - all other factors) are taken into account. Preliminary results confirm to some extent earlier studies pointing to existing West-East Germany's discrepancies. It seems particularly visible when taking into account elements of the first module and - key for long term growth - factors of the fifth unit.
Howells, J. (2004). Innovation, consumption and services: encapsulation and the combinatorial role of services. Service Industries Journal , 24 (1), 19–36. DOI: 10.1080/02642060412331301112.
Howells, J. (2001). The nature of innovation in services. In: Innovation and Productivity in Services (pp. 55–79). Paris: OECD.
Jetter, M., Satzger, G., Neus, A. (2009). Technological Innovation and Its Impact on Business Model, Organization and Corporate Culture – IBM’s Transformation into a Globally Integrated, Service-Oriented Enterprise. Business & Information
The Romanian natural gas market is still in its infancy regarding the manners in which the demand and supply match. We are frequently talking about market liquidity or about its dynamic behavior, without considering the monthly losses of the national natural gas system operator that derive from the very lack of matching the supply and demand. The present article proposes a method of overlaying the two in a manner that is feasible for the Romanian natural gas market of 2017, a method that will encapsulate the usage of OBAs (operational balancing agreements) in correlation with a model of allocating the demand and supply as a restricted all-pairs shortest path problem. Based on authors experience, five main variables will be examined: point-of-entry (location and time), volume, time and location of delivery, as well as other sets of data that are particular to this sector. This article will tackle the area of usability of OBAs between suppliers and the degrees of sustainability that such a model offers for clients, therefore the resilience of the system will be analyzed through an optimized transfer of information and accessibility to assets. Due to the complex nature of demand in energy markets and the different requirements set by clients, in which an energy resource can be requested by different sets of users, we will conceive a model that can be applied for natural gas, but also for electric energy production and industrial clients. The scope of this endeavor is to create a tool that will minimize the monthly losses of the national natural gas system operator, as well as its distributors, by allocating, in a fair and unbiased way, the responsibility of fulfilling the requested demand in a certain time unit.