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Julijan Malacko, Veroljub Stanković, Emilija Marković and Ljiljana Arsić
The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of a series of processes which a leader in sport has to design and realize. The necessity of leadership presence (guidance) in sport can be found in the dynamic polyvalent and multidisciplinary development of contemporary human society, with the added note that management is more closely related to efficiency, and leadership with effectiveness and change. Based on the partial models of the structural and organizational system of sport constructed and presented so far, and the current global analyses of sports management and marketing, quality management, information, communication, scientific and training technology, as well as the analysis of individual models and their mutual interactions, we can conclude that the transformation processes which are in sport defined by applying increasingly more modern technologies, and in the world at large take place in a continued, dynamic and intense manner in sports organizations, should lead to the most efficient, optimal and effective modeling of increasingly newer and more modern creations, conceptions, projections and strategies, so that they could as a consequence lead to the strengthening of the role of specific sports and business functions.
The aim of the study was to verify the efficiency of two frisbee ultimate teaching models at 8-year grammar schools relative to age. In the experimental group was used a game based model (Teaching Games for Understanding) and in the control group the traditional model based on teaching techniques. 6 groups of female students took part in experiment: experimental group 1 (n=10, age=11.6), experimental group 2 (n=12, age=13.8), experimental group 3 (n=14, age =15.8), control group 1 (n=11, age =11.7), control group 2 (n=10, age =13.8) and control group 3 (n=9, age =15.8). Efficiency of the teaching models was evaluated based of game performance and special knowledge results. Game performance was evaluated by the method of game performance assessment based on GPAI (Game Performance Assessment Instrument) through video record. To verify level of knowledge, we used a knowledge test, which consisted of questions related to the rules and tactics knowledge of frisbee ultimate. To perform statistical evaluation Mann-Whitney U-test was used. Game performance assessment and knowledge level indicated higher efficiency of TGfU in general, but mostly statistically insignificant. Experimental groups 1 and 2 were significantly better in the indicator that evaluates tactical aspect of game performance - decision making (p<0.05). Experimental group 3 was better in the indicator that evaluates skill execution - disc catching. The results showed that the students of the classes taught by game based model reached partially better game performance in general. Experimental groups achieved from 79.17 % to 80 % of correct answers relating to the rules and from 75 % to 87.5 % of correct answers relating to the tactical knowledge in the knowledge test. Control groups achieved from 57.69 % to 72.22 % of correct answers relating to the rules and from 51.92 % to 72.22 % of correct answers relating to the tactical knowledge in the knowledge test.
Ricardo Lima, Ana Filipa Silva and Filipe Manuel Clemente
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6. Adam M., S. Tyszkowski, M
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5. Bushell J.E., Dawson S.M., Webster M.M. (2015) Clinical relevance
The aim of the study was to verify the efficiency of a traditional (technical) approach and a tactical game based approach to teaching minihandball game skills the first- to fourth-grade elementary school pupils. The experimental design was two parallel-group trials. Experimental groups (EG) were taught by the tactical approach where modified and small-sided games comprised 80 % and drill-exercises 20 % of all the units. Control groups (CG) were taught by the technical approach where drill exercises comprised 70 % and modified and small-sided games 30 % of all the units. Two groups of first- and second-graders (EG n=16, CG n=17) and two groups of third- and fourth-graders (both EG and CG n=12) attending extracurricular activities oriented to minihandball participated in the study. The technique of offensive game skills (overarm pass, dribbling and shot) was evaluated by 1 to 5 scoring system. For statistical analysis, Wilcoxon’s T-test and Man-Whitney’s U-test were used and the level of significance was set to 5 %. Based on the results it can be stated that the tactical approach is as efficient as a technical approach on game skills’ technique acquirement. Results showed significant changes in the technique of game skills in both age categories (p<0.01). No significant differences between age categories were confirmed in game skill tests besides the dribbling test where the older experimental group (third- and fourth-graders) achieved better performance than the younger experimental group (first- and second-graders).
The intention of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) is to map complex system-behaviour to single values for scaling, rating and ranking systems or system components. Very often, however, this mapping only reduces important information about tactical behaviour or playing dynamics without replacing it by useful ones. The presented approach tries to bridge the gap between complex dynamics and numerical indicators in the case of offensive effectiveness in soccer in two steps. First, a model is developed which visualises offensive actions in a process-oriented way by using information units to represent offensive performance – i.e. Key Performance Indicators. Second, this model is organised in relation to time intervals, which enables to measure the effectiveness for a whole half-time as well as for arbitrary intervals of any desired lengths.
This contribution is meant as an introduction to a new modelling idea, where examples are calculated as case studies to demonstrate how it works. Therefore, only two games have been exemplarily analysed yet: The first one, which is used to demonstrate the method, is an example for similar quantitative indicators but different dynamic behaviour. The last one is used to demonstrate the results in the case of teams with extreme different strengths.
Audas, R., Dobson, S., & Goddard, J. (2002). The impact of managerial change on team performance in professional sports. Journal of Economics and Business , 54 , 633–650.
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Dobson, S. & Goddard, J