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Interpreting Foreign Smiles: Language Context and Type of Scale in the Assessment of Perceived Happiness and Sadness

models. Journal of Statistical Software , 82 (13), 1–26. https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v082.i13 Lavie, N. (2005). Distracted and confused? Selective attention under load. Trends in Cognitive Sciences , 9 , 75–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2004.12.004 Lavie, N., & Cox, S. (1997). On the efficiency of visual selective attention: Efficient visual search leads to inefficient distractor rejection. Psychological Science , 8 , 395–398. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.1997.tb00432.x Lemhöfer, K., & Broersma, M. (2012). Introducing LexTALE: A

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Efficiency of Executive Functions and Literacy Among Children With Specific Language Impairment

Abstract

Recently, extensive studies investigating executive functions in children with specific language impairment (SLI) have been performed. In the present study, we compared the level of executive functions (i.e., inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility) and literacy skills between 53 healthy children and 53 children with SLIs between the ages of 3 and 11 years. The groups were matched by age, gender and parental education level. Executive functions were assessed using the Children Card Sort, and the Literacy Assessment Battery was applied to measure literacy skills. The patients with SLI displayed a significantly lower level of cognitive flexibility than that of the healthy children. No significant differences were observed between the groups in inhibitory control and the majority of literacy skills. The results confirm the hypothesis that patients with SLI experience difficulties in cognitive flexibility.

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Language and Task Switching in Polish-English Bilinguals

The study investigated the relationship between the efficiency of switching languages and non-linguistic tasks in non-proficient Polish-English bilinguals. The participants performed picture naming that involved switching between L1 and L2 in both directions and a shape or color decision on visually presented figures, which required switching and mixing two different tasks. No relationship between the efficiency in switching languages and non-linguistic tasks was observed. However, increased language switching efficiency was related to high task mixing efficiency, indicating that maintaining two languages and two non-linguistic tasks active is mediated by equivalent control processes. Also, switching from L2 to L1 was more time-consuming than in the opposite direction and participants with the greatest L1 switching disadvantage were the fastest task switchers. These findings suggest that nonproficient bilinguals inhibit their stronger language while switching between L1 and L2 and equivalent inhibitory mechanisms can be responsible for the facilitation of their task switching performance.

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Irony Comprehension in the Nonnative Language Comes at a Cost

Abstract

Irony as a communicative phenomenon continues to puzzle. One of the key questions concerns cognitive and linguistic mechanisms underpinning irony comprehension. Empirical research exploring how much time people need to grasp irony as compared to literal meanings, brought equivocal answers. In view of the timespan-oriented-approach’ inconclusiveness, we set to explore the efficiency of irony online processing in a limited-response-time paradigm. Additionally, we aimed to find out whether advanced nonnative users of a language, who have mastered ironic mode of thinking in their native language, get irony as efficiently in their nonnative as they do in their native language. Results show that participants were less efficient in processing irony than nonirony in both tested languages, yet the efficiency decreased in their nonnative language. These results license a claim that irony is a cognitively more demanding communicative phenomenon than literal meaning, and the effort invested in its comprehension increases in the nonnative language.

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An Experimental Approach to Basic Word Order in Turkish Intransitives

-25. Greenberg, J.H. (1963). Some universals of grammar with particular reference to the order of meaningful elements. In J.H. Greenberg (Ed.), Universals of Grammar (pp. 73-113). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Hawkins, J. A. (2004). Efficiency and Complexity in Grammars. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. İşsever, S. (2003). Information structure in Turkish: The word order-prosody interface. Lingua, 113 (11), 1025-1053. Kılıçaslan, Y. (2004). Syntax of information structure in Turkish. Linguistics, 42 (4), 717

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Association of severity of depressive symptoms with sleep quality, social support and stress among Pakistani medical and dental students: A cross-sectional study

medications, sleep disturbances, sleep efficiency and duration of sleep. Scores across all seven subscales can be summed to yield a maximum global score of 21, with higher scores correlating with poorer sleep quality. A cut-off value of five distinguishes poor sleepers from good sleepers ( Buysse et al., 1991 ). Ethical statement All procedures performed in the study were in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments. Ethical approval for this study was sought and obtained from the Ethical Review Board of CMH Lahore Medical College

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Young adults in corporations – psychological labour costs and their correlates based on some empirical research studies

Social Sciences and Humanities „Academica”. Gilad, C.; Goddard, T.G.; Casper, W.J. (2004). Examination of the Relationships among General and Work-Specific Self-Evaluations, Work-Related Control Beliefs, and Job Attitudes. Applied Psychology: An International Review , (53), 3, 349-370. Kopeć H, Kotzian Joanna (2009). Pros and cons of outplacement . In: Personnel and management , 6, 32-36. Lachowicz-Tabaczek, K. (2001). Work motivation and satisfaction versus efficiency of performance of professional tasks. Unpublished data Pierce, J

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What mental health promotion do university students need?

Psychiatry , 6 , 45–52. Rosenberg, L. (2011) Mental Health First Aid: A ‘Radical Efficiency’ in Health Promotion. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research , 38 (2), 143-145. Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (2013). Retrieved from http://www.pubfacts.com/detail/23679917/The-saving-and-empoweringyoung-lives-in-Europe-SEYLE-randomized-controlled-trial-RCT:-methodologica Sokołowska, E., Zabłocka-Żytka, L., Kluczyńska, S., Wojda-Kornacka, J. (2015). Zdrowie psychiczne młodych dorosłych. Wybrane zagadnienia. [Mental health of young

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The role of personal resources in the relationship between job stressors and emotional exhaustion

emotional labor processes. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 1107‒1117. Mikolajczak, M., Nelis, D., Hansenne, M., & Quoidbach, J. (2008). If you can regulate sadness, you can probably regulate shame: Associations between trait emotional intelligence, emotion regulation and coping efficiency across discrete emotions. Personality and Individual Differences, 44 , 1356‒1368. Mikolajczak, M., Roy, E., Luminet, O., Fillee, C., & de Timary, P. (2007). The moderating impact of emotional intelligence on free cortisol responses to stress. Psycho

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Compliance Issues in Higher Education

Abstract

Efficiency in the 1980’s, quality in the 1990’s, compliance in the 2010’s - private sector management techniques and mechanisms find their way to public services. This paper facilitates the understanding of how compliance management controls can improve operations and prevent or detect failure or wrongdoing. The last few years’ empirical research and benchmark studies demonstrate how organizations are confused about the use of compliance controls. In brief, better organized and integrated IT controls generally lead to better compliance all over the business.

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