Izabela Kaczmarek, Sławomir Jabłoński, Paweł Kleka and Barbara Steinborn
Recently, extensive studies investigating executive functions in children with specific language impairment (SLI) have been performed. In the present study, we compared the level of executive functions (i.e., inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility) and literacy skills between 53 healthy children and 53 children with SLIs between the ages of 3 and 11 years. The groups were matched by age, gender and parental education level. Executive functions were assessed using the Children Card Sort, and the Literacy Assessment Battery was applied to measure literacy skills. The patients with SLI displayed a significantly lower level of cognitive flexibility than that of the healthy children. No significant differences were observed between the groups in inhibitory control and the majority of literacy skills. The results confirm the hypothesis that patients with SLI experience difficulties in cognitive flexibility.
The study investigated the relationship between the efficiency of switching languages and non-linguistic tasks in non-proficient Polish-English bilinguals. The participants performed picture naming that involved switching between L1 and L2 in both directions and a shape or color decision on visually presented figures, which required switching and mixing two different tasks. No relationship between the efficiency in switching languages and non-linguistic tasks was observed. However, increased language switching efficiency was related to high task mixing efficiency, indicating that maintaining two languages and two non-linguistic tasks active is mediated by equivalent control processes. Also, switching from L2 to L1 was more time-consuming than in the opposite direction and participants with the greatest L1 switching disadvantage were the fastest task switchers. These findings suggest that nonproficient bilinguals inhibit their stronger language while switching between L1 and L2 and equivalent inhibitory mechanisms can be responsible for the facilitation of their task switching performance.
Irony as a communicative phenomenon continues to puzzle. One of the key questions concerns cognitive and linguistic mechanisms underpinning irony comprehension. Empirical research exploring how much time people need to grasp irony as compared to literal meanings, brought equivocal answers. In view of the timespan-oriented-approach’ inconclusiveness, we set to explore the efficiency of irony online processing in a limited-response-time paradigm. Additionally, we aimed to find out whether advanced nonnative users of a language, who have mastered ironic mode of thinking in their native language, get irony as efficiently in their nonnative as they do in their native language. Results show that participants were less efficient in processing irony than nonirony in both tested languages, yet the efficiency decreased in their nonnative language. These results license a claim that irony is a cognitively more demanding communicative phenomenon than literal meaning, and the effort invested in its comprehension increases in the nonnative language.
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Ahmed Waqas, Aqsa Iftikhar, Zahra Malik, Kapil Kiran Aedma, Hafsa Meraj and Sadiq Naveed
medications, sleep disturbances, sleep efficiency and duration of sleep. Scores across all seven subscales can be summed to yield a maximum global score of 21, with higher scores correlating with poorer sleep quality. A cut-off value of five distinguishes poor sleepers from good sleepers ( Buysse et al., 1991 ).
All procedures performed in the study were in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments. Ethical approval for this study was sought and obtained from the Ethical Review Board of CMH Lahore Medical College
Social Sciences and Humanities „Academica”.
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Ewa Sokołowska, Lidia Zabłocka-Żytka, Sylwia Kluczyńska and Joanna Wojda-Kornacka
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Sokołowska, E., Zabłocka-Żytka, L., Kluczyńska, S., Wojda-Kornacka, J. (2015). Zdrowie psychiczne młodych dorosłych. Wybrane zagadnienia. [Mental health of young
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Efficiency in the 1980’s, quality in the 1990’s, compliance in the 2010’s - private sector management techniques and mechanisms find their way to public services. This paper facilitates the understanding of how compliance management controls can improve operations and prevent or detect failure or wrongdoing. The last few years’ empirical research and benchmark studies demonstrate how organizations are confused about the use of compliance controls. In brief, better organized and integrated IT controls generally lead to better compliance all over the business.