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Abdallah Bouasla, Agnieszka Wójtowicz, Stanisław Juśko and Mohammed Nasreddine Zidoune
The objective of the study was to determine the effect of extrusioncooking conditions (moisture content and screw speed) and recipe formulation on process efficiency and energy consumption during the extrusion-cooking of gluten-free rice-legumes products, shaped for spaghetti-type pasta. Process efficiency (Q) was determined through measurement of the pasta weight and energy consumption was determined using specific mechanical energy consumption (SME). According to the obtained results, screw speed had a great significant impact on Q and SME values which increased as screw speed increased. Moisture content of raw materials had also a significant effect on Q and SME mainly at low screw speed applied. The process efficiency increased with the increase of raw materials moisture content while reverse observations were noted for the energy consumption. On the contrary, variations of recipe formulations did not affect the measured parameters.
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Elijah Oladimeji Aina, Alex Folami Adisa, Tajudeen Mukaila Adeniyi Olayanju and Salami Olasunkanmi ismaila
The thick vesicant oil liquid contained in the shell of cashew nut, called cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), has been known for its innumerable applications in chemical industries. Performance evaluation of a newly developed CNSL expeller was carried out to determine the effect of moisture content and pressing duration on extraction parameters. The nut shells were grouped as A: 14.00-16.99%, B: 17.00-19.99% and C: 20.00-22.99% (w.b.) moisture content at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 minutes pressing time and combination of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 kg of cashew nut shells. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the stastical analysis. The best mass of liquid extracted, best extraction efficiency and best percentage oil recovery occured at pressing duration of 10 minutes and moisture content of 14.00-16.99% (w.b.), while the best machine capacity was at pressing duration of 2 minutes and moisture content of 14.00-16.99% (w.b.). Results showed that the effects of the pressing duration and moisture content on mass of liquid extracted, machine capacity, extraction efficiency and percentage liquid recovery were significant at 0.05. Meanwhile, the effects of the pressing duration and moisture contents were not significant for the feed rate. Increase in the pressing duration at decreasingthe moisture content resulted in the increase in the mass of liquid extracted, extraction efficiency and percentage liquid recovery while increase in pressing duration and moisture content resulted in decrease in machine capacity of the expeller.
Leszek Majchrzak, Tomasz Piechota and Tomasz Piskier
The research was carried out in 2015-2016 at the Research Station Brody belonging to Poznan University of Life Sciences. The experiment was assumed with blocks randomized in four replications. The aim of the study was to determine the size and structure of energy inputs incurred on cover crops cultivation in different soil tillage systems. The cumulative energy consumption methodology was used to analyse the energy expenditure on field pea and white mustard seed. Based on the research, it was found that sowing field pea as a cover crop as compared to white mustard increased the cumulative energy input by 63.2%. Applied sowing technologies, regardless of cover crop species, reduced cumulative energy use by 22.5% (strip tillage) and direct sowing by 40.7% as compared to traditional tillage. The structure of energy input depended on the type of used cover crop species, which was based on the energy value of the seed used. The value of the energy efficiency index for growing both cover crop species increased with the simplification of the tillage.
Jan Radosław Kaminski, Maciej Kuboń, Evgenij Ivanovič Mazugin and Sergej Grigorevič Rubee
The object of the research is a technological process and technical means of cutting woody shrubs at melioration objects. The subject of the research consists of regularities and methods of execution of the process of cutting woody shrubs at melioration objects by a multirotor mower with trapezoidal knives. The aim of the research is to increase efficiency of cutting shrubs at melioration objects by applying a multi-rotor mower with trapezoidal knives. We have obtained analy tical dependences in order to determine the angle of diversion of a knife from the radial position during contact with the stem, and to calculate the reaction in the joint “knife-fixing bolt” depending on the parameters of a knife and rotor, and the distance from the centre of the knife fixing bolt to the point of contact of a knife and stem, which provides minimal impact load on the knife fixing bolt during cutting woody shrubs. We have also developed a mathematical model of the process of cutting shrubs by a multi-rotor mover with trapezoidal knives, and methods of determination of the main parameters and regimes of work of the mower cutting apparatus for cutting shrubs at melioration objects, which contain a monogram, based on the use of theoretical-experimental dependences.