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Chul Won Lee, Rongjie Zhao, Il Je Cho, Sung Hui Byun, Young Woo Kim, Youn Sook Kim, Sang Chan Kim and Won G. An
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Nicolae Starciuc, Natalia Osadci, Igor Petcu, Nicolae Malancea, Xenia Bordos and Victor Ungureanu
The investigations were aimed to establish the comparative efficiency of four disinfectants (Aquadez, Ecocide S, Virocide and Na OH) used for the disinfection of cattle farm of State Agrarian University of Moldova. According to the classical methodology, the disinfectants have been used in concentrations which were recommended by the producers. Following this, lavages were collected from different supports and equipment of the cattle farm before sparing of the disinfectants and one hour after the contact of the disinfectants with the substrates. In this context samples were taken from places as the feeding space for animals and the rest area, cows’ milking rooms and the milk collection rooms. Afterwards, the samples have been inseminated in laboratory conditions for establishing the afterwards disinfecting effect on the farm. As a result, the microbiological investigation demonstrated that concentrations which were recommended by the producers and double concentrations of disinfectants don’t have satisfactory 100% of the anti-microbial and antifungal effect. For all disinfected places with the mentioned disinfectants colonies of microorganisms grew on nutrient media, especially bacterial forms as Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and microscopic fungal. Following comparisons, Ecocide S 3% and Na OH 3% had a higher efficiency than Aquadez 3%. The after application effect of Aquadez 3% established the presence of Salmonella, E. coli colonies grown on nutrient media as well as, Streptococcus and microscopic fungal.
Jędrzej M. Jaśkowski, Marek Gehrke, Magdalena Herudzińska, Bartłomiej M. Jaśkowski and Klaus-Peter Brüssow
.R.: Resynchronization strategies to improve fertility in lactating dairy cows utilizing a presynchronization injection of GnRH or supplemental progesterone. I. Pregnancy rates and ovarian responses. J Dairy Sci 2010, 93, 4086–4095. doi: 10.3168/jds.2010-3233.
9. El-Tarabany M.S.: The efficiency of new CIDR and once-used CIDR to synchronize ovulation in primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows. Anim Reprod Sci 2016, 173, 29–34. doi: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2016.08.006.
10. Fosgate G.T., Motimele B., Ganswindt A., Irons P.C.: A Bayesian latent class model to estimate the
during the rearing period and performance in the first three lactations in Holstein cows. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 60: 417–425.
Vande Haar M.J., Armentano L.E., Weigel K., Spurlock D.M., Tempelman R.J., Veerkamp R. (2016). Harnessing the genetics of the modern dairy cows to continue improvements in feed efficiency. J. Dairy Sci., 99: 4941–4954.
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Wiedemann S., Holz P., Kunz H.-J., Stamer E., Kaske M. (2015). Effect of ad libitum feeding of Holstein
S. Đorđe Marjanović, Danica Bogunović, Mirjana Milovanović, Darko Marinković, Nemanja Zdravković, Vladimir Magaš and M. Saša Trailović
In the present study we tested the dose andh time dependence of the antinematodal effects of carvacrol and tyhmol on Caenorabditis elegans, and the efficacy of carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene and cinnamaldehyde,which were administrated in the drinking water of rats naturally infected with the pinworm Syphacia muris. The control treatment of the infected rats was carried out with piperazine. Thymol caused a dose and time-dependent mortality in adult C. elegans. The value of the Median Lethal Concentration (LC50) of thymol was 117.9nM after 24h and 62.89 nM after 48h of exposure. Carvacrol exhibited a higher antinematodal efficiency than thymol. The LC50 of carvacrol, after 24 hours of exposure, was 53.03 nM, while after 48 hours it was 33.83 nM. On the other hand, piperazine showed an extremely high efficacy against S. muris infection in rats. Piperazine, at a dose of 625 mg/kg bw, administered in drinking water continuously for 10 days, eliminates the infection completely. However, none of the investigated active ingredients of essential oils were effective against S. muris. The reason for the lack of efficiency may be due to their pharmacokinetic properties. A relatively low amount of, orally administered, active ingredients of essential oils reaches the distal segments of the gastrointestinal tract, where S. muris inhabits the gut (colon and cecum). The obtained results, on C. elegans, indicate a clear dose and time-dependent antinematodal effect of thymol and carvacrol. However, for clinical application, it is necessary to examine the efficacy of microencapsulated formulations with a controlled release of active ingredients of essential oils in certain parts of the gastrointestinal tract.
Although Mycobacterium avium subspecies are generally not considered food pathogens, the infections caused by these particular nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can represent a serious threat to immunocompromised population. Additionally, infections with a member of Mycobacterium Avium Compex (MAC) can affect the efficiency of BCG vaccines used for the humans. In infected animals, M. avium may be present in different tissues without apparent clinical symptoms and macroscopic lesions. Veterinary meat inspection would then fail to recognize infected animals and such meat and meat products thereof could enter the human diet. The aim of this paper is also to analyze the current control policy in Europe according to infections of pigs with the members of MAC, and point out the risks for public health. By analyzing a large number of meat samples and other dietary nutrients, different groups of authors have provided evidence to support the hypothesis that M. avium is present in the everyday environment. Therefore, food as a source of infection with mycobacteria should not be ignored. The control of mycobacteria requires a better diagnostic approach, having in mind recent positive cases of M. avium subspecies hominissuis (MAH) in an increasing number of exported pigs from EU countries to Serbia. The introduction of reliable diagnostic methods for MAH could result in decreasing the occurrence of infection in pigs, as well as in humans, having in mind that WHO reported 10 million new cases of tuberculosis-mycobacteriosis in the human population in 2015 with 21% of these cases occurring in immunocompromised individuals and children.
Zoran Stanimirović, Uroš Glavinić, Nada Lakić, Dejan Radović, Marko Ristanić, Elmin Tarić and Jevrosima Stevanović
Varroa destructor is the most important honey bee parasite. There are various methods used in the control of this mite, but none of them meets all requested criteria, to be safe, effective and easy to apply. The objective of this study was to evaluate the varroacidal efficacy of newly created plant-derived formulation Argus Ras (mixture of extracts of Sophora flavescens, Ginkgo biloba, Gleditsia chinensis and Teucrium chamaedrys) in a field trial. The investigation was conducted on 240 Apis mellifera colonies equalized in respect of brood amount, adult bee population and food reserves. Efficiency was evaluated by applying Argus Ras consecutively with two other acaricides, amitraz and oxalic acid. Average acaricidal efficacy of Argus Ras was 80.89%, being higher of other previously tested essential oils. Besides, it showed a potential in knocking down the mites resistant to other acaricides. It should not be neglected that Argus Ras requires a smaller number of treatments and financial investments than other formulations used for the control of Varroa mites.