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Treatment of tuberculosis infection complicated with liver transplant

– 1104 [14] Sester U., Junker H., Hodapp T., Schütz A., Thiele B., Meyerhans A., et al., Improved efficiency in detecting cellular immunity towards M. tuberculosis in patients receiving immunosuppressive drug therapy, Nephrol. Dial. Transplant., 2006, 21(11), 3258-3268. 10.1093/ndt/gfl416 16935889 Sester U. Junker H. Hodapp T. Schütz A. Thiele B. Meyerhans A. et al Improved efficiency in detecting cellular immunity towards M. tuberculosis in patients receiving immunosuppressive drug therapy Nephrol. Dial. Transplant 2006 21 11 3258

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Prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths in primary school playgrounds in Edo State, southern Nigeria

period, many of the boys often play in the open field (mainly football) without footwear so as to ease movement. Therefore, this risk behaviour further exposes these children to hookworm and Strongyloides infections. The soil parasites recovered from designated points in the study locations may not be a complete reflection of the reported parasite profile as soil texture could affect egg recovery efficiency ( Steinbaum et al., 2017 ). The flotation technique (sugar solution) used in this study is known to distort STH eggs and make microscopic identification

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Monitoring of Ascaris suum in slaughter pigs during 2000–2009 in Slovakia

Abstract

Ascaris suum is a parasitic nematode of pigs with worldwide distribution causing economic loses due do health interactions, reduced feed to gain efficiency and loses due to liver condemnation at abattoirs. To survey the herd prevalence of ascariosis in Slovakia, the presence of milk spots in liver of slaughtered pigs is monitored at abattoirs. According to shortened life-span of fattening pigs, this is the most suitable screening method for efficiency evaluation of control measures. Within the monitoring in 2000–2009, in total 279 herds (19 017 animals) were examined. During this period, marked decrease in occurrence of pathological lesions, resp. milk spots, in liver was recorded (from 39.51 % to 6.85 %) in investigated herds.

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Suitability of different tissue fixatives for subsequent PCR analysis of Cysticercus ovis

Abstract

PCR amplification of specific DNA regions is a powerful tool for retrospective studies, but not all preservation or fixation methods render DNA that is suitable for subsequent amplification. Several factors affect sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. There were reported the effects of commonly used fixation solutions — 10 % neutral buffered formalin, 20 % neutral buffered formalin and Carnoy’s solution and the efficiency of PCR amplification in fresh tissue and paraffin (or wax) embedded samples of Cysticercus ovis. DNA from samples was isolated and PCR product of 1300 bp was amplified. Results indicated that the samples fixed in Carnoy’s solution produced reliable amplification of desired fragments. The samples that were fixed in 10 % and 20 % neutral buffered formalin brought negative results.

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Application of multi-shoots cultures in micropropagation of willow herb (Chamaenerion angustifolium (L.) Scop.)

Summary

Introduction: Willow herb (Chamaenerion angustifolium (L.) Scop. syn. Epilobium angustifolium L. from Onagraceae family is a valuable medicinal plant that has been used in the treatment of urogenital disorders including BPH (Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy). The raw material is a rich source of polyphenols as well as steroids, triterpenoids and fatty acids. Due to frequent interspecific hybridization, plants collected in wild display a very diverse and variable content of active compounds. This poses a challenge in obtaining high quality and homogenous raw material. Application of the in vitro cultures and micropropagation techniques may offer a solution for alternative methods of cultivation.

Objective: This work presents preliminary results of the first implementation of in vitro cultures of willow herb to obtain material for medicinal purposes.

Methods: Sterile seedlings were donors of explants, which were used for induction of multi-shoots culture according to a modified protocol described by Turker and co-workers. Statistical analysis was used for assessment of significance of differences among variables.

Results: Six different genotypes (lines) originating from root explants were chosen for clonal propagation. Efficiency of the elaborated method was 16–20 shoots per explant. Finally, over 3000 acclimatized plants were obtained and used for field crops.

Conclusions: The use of Ch. angustifolium in vitro cultures can contribute to the introduction of this valuable herb for field crops and increase the availability of the raw material for food and pharmaceutical industries.

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Liver Histopathological Features Influencing HBeAg Seroconversion in Patients with HBeAg-positive Chronic Hepatitis B Treated with Pegylated Interferon α

Abstract

Objective To investigate the efficiency of pegylated interferon α therapy for patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and explore whether liver histopathological features and other factors might influence HBeAg seroconversion.

Methods Total of 80 HBeAg-positive CHB patients who received liver puncture were treated with pegylated interferon α once a week for 48 weeks. The rate of HBeAg seroconversion was determined after therapy, and the factors influencing HBeAg seroconversion were analyzed.

Results The rate of HBeAg seroconversion was 30.00% at the end of treatment. The rate of HBeAg seroconversion gradually increased with the elevation of liver inflammatory activity (χ2 = 9.170, P = 0.027). But liver fibrosis has little correlation with the rate of HBeAg seroconversion (χ2 = 5.917, P = 0.116). Except HBeAg, other baseline indexes including gender, age, serum ALT and serum HBV DNA 1evels had no statistical difference between the patients with HBeAg seroconversion and the patients without HBeAg seroconversion. By binary logistic regression analysis, liver inflammation and HBeAg were influencing factors for HBeAg seroconversion.

Conclusions Pegylated interferon α therapy induces a higher rate of HBeAg seroconversion in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with severe liver inflammation, so the liver biopsies should be performed in time.

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Experimental Paper. In vitro synthesis of mucilage in Plantago ovata Forsk affected by genotypes and culture media

Summary

Introduction: Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) is medicinally used mainly for its mucilage content. Objective: In the present study, an attempt was made to improve mucilage yield under in vitro callus culture using different genotypes, explants and culture media. Methods: The effects of a range of concentrations of plant growth regulators including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and kinetin (Kin) were evaluated on mucilage synthesis under in vitro culture using cotyledon, hypocotyl and seed explants. Fourteen genotypes originating from different geographical regions of Iran were used to evaluate their response to in vitro mucilage synthesis. Results: The highest rate of callus induction (76%) and callus growth rate CGR (0.38 mm/day) were induced on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D and 1 mg/l Kin and the hypocotyl explant. The results of analysis of variance showed significant genotypic differences for callus induction, CGR and mucilage content of callus and seeds. The mucilage content ranged from 0.38 to 0.08 (g/g DW) and 0.13 to 0.042 (g/g DW) for callus and seed, respectively. The superior callus induction (73%), CGR (0.45 mm/day) and mucilage content of callus (0.38 g/g DW) was denoted to Po1 genotype. The callus produced nearly three times more mucilage than the seeds using superior genotype (Po1). Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that high efficiency of callus culture of P. ovata using hypocotyl explant accompanied by the exploration of genetic diversity are important to improve the yield of mucilage synthesis by in vitro callus culture.

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Biology and predatory attributes of a diplogasterid nematode, Fictor composticola Khan et al., 2008

Summary

Biology of Fictor composticola has been studied on Aphelenchus avenae in vitro. It reproduces by amphimixis, embryonic development is completed in 24 - 27 h and life cycle in 3 - 4 days. Fusion of sperm and egg pronuclei occurs in the uteri. Pulsation of median oesophageal bulb and pressing of lips against egg shell is seen just prior to hatching but teeth seem to play no role in this process. No moulting occurs inside the egg shell and the first stage juvenile hatches out. Female and male undergo mating upon addition of water in the culture plates and continue to swim in copula for a considerable time. A female lays 1.6 - 4.0 eggs in 24 h while feeding upon A. radicicolus. Predation and reproduction is affected by the temperature and 25 - 35 °C is the optimum range for these phenomena. Process of feeding as recorded with a CCTV attached to a compound microscope is described. F. composticola engulfs small preys; sucks the intestinal contents while holding them or cuts the body wall of large-sized preys and then feeds on prolapsed organs. Two sexes differ in their efficiencies of predation, a female on an average kills 53 A. avenae as compared to 11 by a male in 24 h. F. composticola feeds and reproduces on mycophagous nematodes and juveniles of root- knot, cyst and citrus nematodes but does not prey upon adult nematodes having coarsely annulated cuticle. Cannibalism in this species is also observed. F. composticola and Seinura paratenuicaudata prey upon each other. Biocontrol potential of F. composticola for managing nematode problems in button mushroom and agricultural crops has also been discussed.

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Clinical Characteristics in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis Induced by HBV Infection and Combined with Mild Alcohol Intake

ME, Weill J, et al. Compared efficiency of mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and serum gamma-ethanol drinkers. Clin Chim Acta 1976;68(3):321-326. 5. Avsaroglu D, Inal TC, Demir M, Attila G, Acarturk E, Evlice YE, et al. Biochemical indicators and cardiac function tests in chronic alcohol abusers. Croat Med J 2005;46(2):233-237. 6. Eckardt MJ, Ryback RS, Rawlings RR, Graubard BI. Biochemical-diagnosis of alcoholism - a test of the discriminating capabilities of gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase and mean corpuscular volume. JAMA 1981

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