Ahmed Waqas, Aqsa Iftikhar, Zahra Malik, Kapil Kiran Aedma, Hafsa Meraj and Sadiq Naveed
medications, sleep disturbances, sleep efficiency and duration of sleep. Scores across all seven subscales can be summed to yield a maximum global score of 21, with higher scores correlating with poorer sleep quality. A cut-off value of five distinguishes poor sleepers from good sleepers ( Buysse et al., 1991 ).
All procedures performed in the study were in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments. Ethical approval for this study was sought and obtained from the Ethical Review Board of CMH Lahore Medical College
Hypertension is a common problem in the elderly population. It is one of the factors determining the pattern of cognitive functioning of the patients, however the nature and severity of neuropsychological deficits are unclear. The main aim of the study was to assess effectiveness of cognitive task performance and the strategies of verbal material organization in patients with varying levels of productivity and control. The outpatients treated for hypertension (n = 46) were tested with the following neuropsychological tests and the experimental task: Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Semantic Verbal Fluency Task (VF). The level of productivity and control in older hypertensive patients appeared to be important variables differentiating the effectiveness of structured task performance involving the memory and learning of verbal material. Patients with weaker productivity and control show less efficiency in formulating and sustaining a learning plan expressed by the compatibility of responses in subsequent attempts. Weaker productivity and control are associated with high risk of memory problems, especially in situations characterized by a high degree of structure. It is advisable to include an evaluation of certain aspects of executive functions at the initial stage of assessment of patients at risk of brain dysfunction.
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