Cemal Cingi, Erdem Atalay Cetinkaya, Osman Halid Cam, Fatih Oghan and Nuray Bayar Muluk
Headache is a common complaint which otolaryngologists frequently have to evaluate and treat in practice. Migraine, tension, cluster and sinus-rooted headaches are the most confronted ones in primary visits. Therefore, considerations of multidiscipline may be required to diagnose the rhinogenic and non-rhinogenic headaches. Rhinogenic headache is a distinct type of headache that has attracted an increased amount of attention in the recent years. The mechanism of headache is not yet known. In fact, the treatments of the above-mentioned headaches are different, but they may intersect in some cases. Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and opioids are often used in headache treatment. Codeine, a well-known opioid derivative, has been prescribed for analgesia for a long time. This review aims to discuss the possible use and efficiency of NSAID and codeine combinations in the treatment of rhinogenic headaches.
Mihai Dumitru, Daniel Tweedie, Ion Anghel, Romica Cergan, Codrut Sarafoleanu and Adrian Costache
BACKGROUND. Ultrasonography has been used in rhinology for diagnosing trauma lesions (fractures, hemosinus), second opinion in tumoral pathology, screening for sinusitis, but on a small scale and with future prospects of cost efficiency.
OBJECTIVE. We hope to grow awareness of the possible use of ultrasound in screening for nasal and paranasal sinuses pathology at the level of ENT emergency departments.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. We describe the technique for ultrasound examination of this region, emphasizing the need for a profound anatomical knowledge characteristic for ENT specialists. Any specialist having access to an ultrasound machine is encouraged to experiment with this imaging procedure. Two cases benefited from the use of ultrasonography in order to receive a better management and a swift treatment. One case presented with a maxillary sinus tumor and another with a paranasal tumor neighbouring the orbit.
CONCLUSION. Ultrasonography of nasal and paranasal sinuses permits serial examination without irradiating the patient; it could be implemented as an addition to FAST-like protocols at the level of emergency departments in order to screen for occult head and neck pathology prior to conventional radiology and CT imaging and thus reducing costs
Frodita Jakimovska, Marina Davceva Cakar and Dejan Dokic
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