, H., & van Bottenburg, M. (2015). Successful elite sport policies. An international comparison of the sport policy factors leading to international sporting success (SPLISS 2.0) in 15 nations. Aachen: Meyer & Meyer.
Mandl, U., Dierx, A., & Ilzkovitz, F. (2008). The effectiveness and efficiency of public spending. European Commission, Directorate General for Economic and Financial Affairs. Economic Paper 301.
Pollitt, C., & Bouckaert, G. (2004). Public Management Reform: An International Comparison. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Alexandru E, Alexandru A. The quantitative model of the finalizations in men’s competitive handball and their efficiency. J Phys Edu Sport , 2009; 24: 3: 1-6
Biao M. The importance of fast break in handball competitions. J Anhui Sport Sci , 2009; 5-12
Calin R. The analysis of the efficiency of using fast breaks in female handball during the World Championship in China, 2009. Sci Movement Health , 2010; 2; 594-599
Ding YJ. The statistical analysis of the technique and tactics
Alp I. Performance Evaluation of Goalkeepers of the World Cup. J Sports Sci, 2006; 19(2): 119-125
Anderson TR, Sharp GP. A new measure of football batters using DEA. Ann Oper Res, 1997; 73: 141-155
Barros CP, Assaf A, Sá-Earp F. Brazilian Football League Technical Efficiency: A Simar and Wilson Approach. JSE , 2010; 11(6): 641-651
Boscá JE, Liern V, Martínez A, Sala R. Increasing offensive or defensive efficiency? An analysis of Italian and Spanish football. Omega, 2009
Jean-François Dionne, Claude Lajoie, Philippe Gendron, Eduardo Freiberger and François Trudeau
, Finland). Gross efficiency was measured by the following formula ( Jeukendrup et al., 2000 ):
[60 × W] ÷ [20934 × VO2]
Cycling economy was determined by dividing power output (W) by moment VO 2 (W/L/min) ( Jeukendrup et al., 2000 ; Hawley, 2000). Mechanical power (W) and all derived data were recorded by the Computrainer, which had been validated ( Westgarth-Taylor et al., 1997 ). Blood lactate (B[La]) was measured from a sample of fingertip capillary whole blood at the end of each bout of work and recovery (Pro-Lactate, Arkray Inc., Kyoto, Japan). The lactate
, 2004 ), with player rotation in the field ( Yin and Dong, 2007 ; Zadražnik et al., 2009 ), with a part of the set ( Marcelino et al., 2012 ), with specific characteristics of individual player roles ( Bergeles and Nikolaidou, 2011 ; Marcelino et al., 2014 ; Matias and Greco, 2011 ; Mesquita et al., 2007 ) and with the outcome of the set or, respectively, the match ( Claver et al., 2013 ; Klaričić et al., 2018 ).
However, information is lacking on the variances in spiking frequency and efficiency from particular zones of the volleyball court. By systematic data
, 2011; 25(4): 1126-1133
Moseley L, Jeukendrup AE. The reliability of cycling efficiency. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2001; 33(4): 621-627
Nishi Y. Measurement of thermal balance of man. In: Cena K, Clark JA, (Eds.) Bioengineering Thermal Physiology and Comfort. New York: Elsevier, 29-39; 1981
O’Donovan G, Owen A, Bird SR, Kearney EM, Nevill AM, Jones DW, Woolf-May K. Changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and coronary heart disease risk factors following 24 wk of moderate- or highintensity exercise of equal energy cost. J Appl
Xabier Artetxe-Gezuraga, Sara Maldonado-Martín, Bret G. Freemye and Jesús Cámara
high-level athletes ( Hopker et al., 2009 ; Lucia et al., 2000 ), possibly due to its high heritability ( Bouchard et al., 1999 ) and association with genetic polymorphisms ( Ahmetov and Fedotovskaya, 2015 ).
Gross efficiency (GE) differs from V̇O 2max in that it is adaptable ( Hopker et al., 2009 ) once a certain level of fitness is reached and it may be a more important determinant of cycling performance ( Joyner and Coyle, 2008 ; Lucia et al., 2003 ; Santalla et al., 2012 ). Gross efficiency has good absolute reliability ( Moseley and Jeukendrup, 2001 ) and
The Effect of Introducing a Smaller and Lighter Basketball on Female Basketball Players' Shot Accuracy
Our study examined whether the introduction of a smaller and lighter basketball (no. 6) affected the accuracy of female basketball players' shots at the basket. The International Basketball Federation (FIBA) introduced a size 6 ball in the 2004/2005 season to improve the efficiency and accuracy of technical elements, primarily shots at the basket. The sample for this study included 573 European female basketball players who were members of national teams that had qualified for the senior women's European championships in 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2007. A size 7 (larger and heavier) basketball was used by 286 players in 1,870 matches, and a size 6 basketball was used by 287 players in 1,966 matches. The players were categorised into three playing positions: guards, forwards and centres. The results revealed that statistically significant changes by year occurred only in terms of the percentage of successful free throws. With the size 6 basketball, this percentage decreased. Statistically significant differences between the playing positions were observed in terms of the percentage of field goals worth three points (between guards and forwards) and two points (between guards and centres). The results show that the introduction of the size 6 basketball did not lead to improvement in shooting accuracy (the opposite was found for free throws), although the number of three-point shots increased.
Christos Marmarinos, Nikolaos Apostolidis, Nikolaos Kostopoulos and Alexandros Apostolidis
factor connected with an increase in overall efficiency of high-level teams ( Strumbelj et al., 2013 ).
Researchers have viewed the importance of the PNR in a team’s offense and started analyzing the PNR ( Ibanez et al., 2008 ; Lamas et al., 2011 ; Polykratis et al., 2010 ; Vaquera et al., 2013 ). Behavioral, contextual and evaluative variables have been examined ( Mavridis et al., 2009 ). There has also been research conducted to inquire into significant differences in the efficiency of the PNR for a single team in a men’s world championship ( Polykratis et al
Gordon Bell, Jack Bennett, William Reynolds, Daniel Syrotuik and Pierre Gervais
This study compared two different body positions at the finish of a stroke during stationary rowing exercise on physiological and kinematic measurements. Nine male and five female rowers volunteered for the study: mean age (± SD), body height and body mass were 27 ±9 yrs, 180.5 ±12.3 cm and 81.2 ±14.2 kg. The two body positions at the finish were controlled at an upright posture or a novel greater lean back position. All subjects completed 3 different experimental trials on a Concept IID rowing machine at 3 different exercise intensities and comparisons were made between the lean back position at the same stroke rate and the same power output as the upright trial. Power output, heart rate, oxygen uptake, energy expenditure and % efficiency were higher (p<0.05) with the greater lean back position at the same stroke rate compared to all other conditions. Range of motion at the hip, ankle, and elbow and the handle velocity and distance moved were greater (p<0.05) with the lean back position. In conclusion, a greater lean back posture at the finish during stationary rowing produces a higher power output and improved efficiency at the same stroke rate but at an elevated physiological cost compared to a more upright position. Despite the higher energy expenditure, the relative gain in power output and efficiency with no negative kinematic changes suggests that a greater lean back position at the finish will enhance performance during stationary rowing exercise.