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Evaluation of the Efficiency of 2 Types of Periodontal Probing

pockets. International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry , 1993; 13:520-529. 8. Mullally BH, Linden GJ . Comparative reproducibility of proximal probing depth using electronic pressure-controlled and hand probing. J Clin Periodontol , 1994; 21:284-288. 9. Martu A, Nitescu D, Nicolaiciuc O, Popa C, Stefanache T, Ursarescu I, Solomon S, Martu S . Comparative study on the efficiency of periodontal probing with electronic periodontal probe versus conventional periodontal probe. Int J Medical Dentistry , 2014; 18(4):309-312.

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Efficiency of XP Endo Shaper (XPS) and Irrigation Protocol on the Quality of Cleaning the Apical Third of Root Canal: SEM Study


Background/Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of new rotary NiTi instrument XP- endo SHAPER (XPS) used with two irrigation protocols on the root canal cleaning in the apical area.

Material and Methods: The research was conducted on 30 single-rooted teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons which were divided into the two groups. Instrumentation of the canals was conducted with XPS instrument and 2% solution of NaOCl was used as irrigant. Instrumentation in the first group was performed using a conventional continuous irrigation, in the second group, protocol of final irrigation was performed intermittently in 3 cycles. The SEM analysis of the apical third of the canal was performed on longitudinal root cross-section standardized photomicrography with a magnification of 2000X.

Results: Results showed that a thicker smear layer was observed in the first group and with continuous irrigation protocol (2,10) in relation to the intermittent irrigation protocol in 3 cycles (1,96), but without significant differences.The walls of the root canal in the apical third of the samples of the second group were slightly cleaner (73.3%) in comparison with the teeth of the first group (64, 7%), but also without significant differences.

Conclusions: The use of XPS and 2% solution of NaOCl in the root canal enables efficient cleaning of the apical third of tooth. The final irrigation protocol in three cycles improves the efficiency of the smear layer removal in the apical segment of the canal.

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Efficiency of Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument and Nerve Conduction Studies for Diagnosis of Diabetic Distal Symmetric Polyneuropathy

, Toyooka K. Sensory loss, pains, motor deficit and axonal regeneration in length-dependent diabetic polyneuropathy. J Neurol 255: 1693–1702, 2008. 32. Janghorbani M, Rezvanian H, Kachooei A et al. Peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus in Isfahan, Iran: prevalence and risk factors. Acta Neurol Scand 114: 384–391, 2006. 33. Mete T, Aydin Y, Saka M et al. Comparison of efficiencies of Michigan neuropathy screening instrument, neurothesiometer, and electromyography for diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy. Int J Endocrinol 2013: 821745, 2013

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Comparison of Three Protocols: Dietary Therapy and Physical Activity, Acupuncture, or Laser Acupuncture in Management of Obese Females


AIM: The aim of this study was to compare efficiency of three types of obesity management protocols: dietary measures and physical activity; acupuncture or laser acupuncture with healthy diet among obese females.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Randomized longitudinal prospective study, carried out on 76 adult females. Blood pressure, anthropometric, ultrasonographic and biochemical assessments were done.

RESULTS: Females undergo nutritional intervention showed highly significant improvement in the anthropometric measurements, visceral fat at umbilicus by US and diastolic blood pressure (decreased), and insignificant differences in fasting blood sugar and lipid profile. Female undergo acupuncture intervention showed highly significant improvement in visceral fat by US, lipid profile (decreased triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and increased HDL), and decreased fasting blood sugar, and insignificant differences in the anthropometric measurements. Those undergo laser intervention showed highly significant improvement in all anthropometric measurements under study, visceral fat at umbilicus by US, blood pressure and some parameters of lipid profile (decreased total cholesterol and LDL).

CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional intervention alone could be used to reduce weight if the lipid profile within normal range, but if it is impaired, acupuncture should be used beside. To strength the reduction in body anthropometry, laser intervention was recommended beside the nutritional intervention.

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Different Tools for the Assessment of Bone Mass among Egyptian Adults


BACKGROUND: Several tools such as, dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and self-assessment tool (OST), are being used for diagnosis of osteoporosis.

OBJECTIVE: to compare the sensitivity and specify detection rate of bone mineral density (BMD) changes for DXA versus QCT and OST among a sample of Egyptian adults of both sexes.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study is a cross sectional one, which included 62 Egyptians, aged 20-65 years. Each individual was assessed for BMD using DXA at femur and spine sites; QCT and OST which take into account body weight and age. Accordingly they were diagnosed as either osteoporotic/osteopenic or normal.

RESULTS: The highest prevalence of osteopenia or osteoporosis was diagnosed among menopause women. DXA at femur has diagnosed more cases of osteoporosis (both osteopenic and osteoporotic) as compared to spine DXA or QCT, but OST is out of rang; as it failed to diagnose any case.

CONCLUSION: DXA has been found to be more efficacious than QCT scan in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. DXA in femur is better than DXA-spine and QCT. Generally, DXA is the “gold standard” when assessing osteoporosis. Further studies are needed to modify the equation of OST and confirm its efficiency in Egyptians population.

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Serum Interleukin-5 Changes in Partly Controlled Atopic Asthmatic Children


BACKGROUND: Cytokines including Interleukin-5 play a key role in orchestrating the chronic inflammation of asthma. We aimed to determine the level of serum IL-5 in partly controlled atopic asthma in children and to assess the effect of different therapies on their levels.

METHODS: The study included 40 children aged 6-12 years with partly controlled asthma. Cases were randomly divided into two groups; group ‘A’ receiving Leukotriene modifiers and group ‘B’ receiving inhaled corticosteroids; each for two months. They were compared to 20 healthy nonasthmatic, matched controls. Serum IL-5 was measured for cases on the first visit and two months after therapy. Absolute eosinophilic count and serum Ig-E were determined. Pulmonary function testing was performed using spirometer at the beginning and two months after regular therapy.

RESULTS: Serum Interleukin-5 was significantly increased in asthmatic children during exacerbation and was significantly decreased after treatment. ROC curve analysis showed significant difference of IgE and PEFR after treatment with leukotriene modifier only.

CONCLUSION: Serum IL-5 seems to have a role in asthma pathogenesis. Efficiency of the two therapies (ICs & LTA) was similar in this group of patients. Both treatments led to significant decline in serum IL-5, IgE levels and eosinophilic count.

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Biological Drilling: Implant Site Preparation in a Conservative Manner and Obtaining Autogenous Bone Grafts


Background/Aim: The drilling process for insertion of an implant should be as conservative as possible, as not to damage the future implant bed. If this drilling is conservative additional bone can be obtained to be used afterwards, during the same surgery, as bone graft particulate if needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a biological low-speed drilling and to analyse the bone obtained in order to ascertain viability and vitality of the contained bone cells. Also, the bone obtained from the low-speed drilling was compared with bone obtained with high speed drilling and irrigation, collected through a filter in aspiration system.

Material and Methods: In this pilot study, samples of biological drilling (low speed without irrigation) were collected in five patients undergoing implant surgery. In the same patients a high speed drilling with irrigation was also used. Bone of the drilling was collected through a filter in the aspiration system. Subsequently the samples were analysed by conventional histology and cultivated in order to observe cell growth.

Results: The samples of bone obtained by biological drilling showed live cells in the conventional optical microscopy and cell growth after cultivation. The bone obtained with drilling at high revolutions showed no living cells and no cell growth after cultivation.

Conclusions: The biological drilling at low speed offered two advantages compared to drilling at high speed with irrigation. The first of these is the perfect control of the drilling depth as the marks of the burs are visible during drilling; the second is possibility of collection of a large number of viable particulate bone grafts without increasing time and complexity of the surgery, which allows immediate augmentation of bone if needed.

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Immunosuppressive treatment for peripheral neuropathies in Sjogren’s syndrome – a systematic review


Background: Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) is among the most frequent autoimmune diseases and one of its most severe extraglandular manifestations is peripheral neuropathy. There is no consensus about peripheral neuropathy treatment in SS. Our aim is to identify studies proving the efficiency of immunosuppressive treatment on peripheral neuropathies in SS.

Methods: The search was conducted on the PubMed (MEDLINE) database. Studies with patients diagnosed with SS and peripheral neuropathy were included. Treatment with one of the following was among inclusion criteria: glucocorticoids (GC), rituximab (RTX), azathioprine (AZA), mycophenolic acid (MMF), cyclophosphamide (CP), methotrexate (MTX), plasmapheresis or iv immunoglobulins (IV IG).

Results: A total of 116 results were found and abstracts were examined. 103 papers were excluded, and the remaining 13 papers were analyzed. They were 3 case series and 10 case reports, retrospective, totalizing 62 patients of which 22 (35,5%) received IV IG, 8 (13%) received RTX, 7 (11%) CP, and 5 (8%) received only GC. Drug associations containing corticosteroids were frequent. Of those 22 treated with IV IG, 18 patients improved (82%), and 4 stabilized (18%).

IV IG was useful in sensory, motor and sensorimotor neuropathies. CP had good results in mononeuritis multiplex, while autonomic neuropathies responded well to GC or RTX. AZA, RTX, MTX, MMF or plasmapheresis were not used alone. Follow-up periods were heterogenous and the evaluation of the neuropathy was not systematic.

Conclusion: There is only low level evidence (retrospective case reports and case series). In most cases, IV IG treatment in patients with peripheral neuropathies and SS resulted in clinical improvement, while other therapies, such as RTX, corticosteroids and CP proved to be useful in a handful of cases.

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Policy Interventions to Tackle Health Inequities in Macedonia: Patient Rights and Reference Pricing of Pharmaceuticals

;10(2):1-12. Gemmill MC, Thomson S, Mossialos E. What impact do prescription drug charges have on efficiency and equity? Evidence from high-income countries. Int J Equity Health. 2008;7:12. doi:10.1186/1475-9276-7-12 PMID:18454849. Wagstaff A, van Doorslaer E, Calonge S, Christiansen T, Gerfin M, Gottschalk P, Janssen R, Lachaud C, Leu RE, Nolan B, et al. Equity in the finance of health care: some international comparisons. J Health Econ. 1992;11(4):361-87. doi:10.1016/0167-6296(92)90012-P PMID:10124309. Wagstaff A, van

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Demographic Characteristics, Referrals and Patients’ Accessibility to an Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic

to Health Care Services in Botosani County-Romania. Procedia Environ Sci, 2016; 32:300-310. 14. Kontodimopoulos N, Nanos P, Niakas D. Balancing efficiency of health services and equity of access in remote areas in Greece. Health Policy, 2006; 76:49-57. 15. Niessen LC, Gibson G, Kinnunen TH. Women’s oral health. Why sex and gender matter. Dental Clinics of North America, 2013; 57:181-94.

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