The objective of this paper is to formulate an acceptable definition of teacher quality based on effective use of time during the teaching process. Assessing teacher quality is hampered by the complexity of intersecting criteria in teaching profession. Quality is often defined broadly and in general concepts isolated from the actual classroom processes. Society, politicians, parents, educators proclaim that the quality of teachers matters, but it is difficult to come to a consensus, which markers of teacher quality can be measured reliably and which of these elements do have crucial impact on teaching. The major goal of this paper is to clarify what efficiency means in the teaching-learning process if time is taken as the main criterion; how knowledge can be defined and how teacher efficiency can be used as an objective marker of quality in teaching profession.
Daina Voita, Evita Vaļēviča, Māra Marnauza, Tālis Gžibovskis and Anda Kauliņa
Possible learning and reading disorder nonmedication correction methods
Learning disabilities, often connected with reading disorders, present major challenges to the educational system. Specific reading disability is a persistent reading dysfunction. A person with a specific reading disability is unable to acquire reading skills disregarding sufficient intellectual and speech capabilities and normal speech and hearing analizator function in an optimal learning environment. New non-medication problem solutions are constantly searched for. Since modern technology and knowledge about alternative treatment of pathology such as tension-type headache that can cause learning difficulties and consequently, develop reading disorders, is constantly developing, the importance of the Biofeedback (BFB) method is increasing.
The aim of the study was to determine the efficiency of BFB on children with migraine and learning disorders, including reading disorder.
Theoretical methods: analysis of medical, psychological and pedagogical literature; empirical methods: testing with Task Force® Monitor device (CNSystems Medizintechnik AG), Analog Visual Scale, Biofeedback X-pert 2000, parametric statistic analyses, a complex evaluation of cognitive abilities was used to detect specific reading disorders. Five boys with migraine and learning disorders accompanied with dyslexia participated in this study, age 10 ± 0,5.
The children took part in 12 BFB temperature sessions, resulting in a reduced frequency of migraine attacks from 7 - 1 times, 3,0 ± 2,3 times a month on average. No changes in migraine intensity were observed. Two participants stopped use of tranquilizers, that could be explained with a positive BFB effect on the autonomic nervous system. All participants showed a better academic performance and a trend of improved reading fluency at the end of the course.
The acquired data and literature analysis show that the usage of BFB has a potential in migraine treatment in children, it increases the quality of life and reduces learning and reading disorders. An increase in efficiency is possible with the inclusion of relaxation training. To reduce reading and language disorders, a complex system of therapeutic methods, including BFB, coordination exercises of percussion instrument play, relaxation and cognitive training sessions should be developed.
The research of ambivalence is an actual problem of modern linguistics because of active promotion of Strategic Ambiguity as one of the major pragmatic categories in order to understand the complexity of the speaker’s communicative intentions. The investigation of implicitness as the core of the Strategic Ambiguity is the current research issue because of the growth of interest in the modern linguistics to the effectiveness of interpersonal interaction. The purpose of investigation is to determine the qualifying and classifying features of strategic ambivalence in order to demonstrate much significance of it in the interpersonal interactions in comparison with the true ambivalence. The main task of the article is to analyse different types of strategic ambivalence in the ironic utterances as well as the mechanisms of optimization of interpersonal interaction on the factual material of English language and propose a model for determining the strategically ambiguous communication. New prospects of the proposed investigation deal with a number of national and cultural peculiarities of implicit discourse on the descriptive material of related and non-related languages in order to increase efficiency of cross-cultural interpersonal communication.
The study attempts to interpret meanings of the Slovak lexeme posledný [the last]. The study is based on the fact that the lexeme has two kinds of semantic valence; that of a sequence element and that of a sequence. In the language picture of the world, this lexeme anticipates ideas of a wide range of collocates and syncretism of several types of sequence. Analyses are based on the invariant meaning of the lexeme “the last” (‘such an X that is not followed by any other’) and on corpus data. The data are used in order to determine how types of collocates in the constructions with ‘last’ do reflect modifications of the invariant meaning, how they are being specified referentially, and how they develop semantic and pragmatic inferences, by means of which they facilitate realization of specific semantic occurrences. Since the lexeme has an anthropological basis, it is expected that various portions and efficiency of the subjective factor will be found. The aim of the study is to present the paradigm of the meanings of the lexeme posledný which are both context-bound and characterized by oscillation between description and qualification. Being a part of noun phrases, these meanings reflect linguistics of constructions as well as syntactic and communicative functions of the lexeme. The aim of the study is also either to confirm or disprove the equal position of the lexemes posledný and ostatný.
Studies on stop unrelease in second language acquisition have hitherto focused on the productions of Slavic learners of English (Šimáčková & Podlipský, 2015) and experiments on Polish learners of English; the latter show the tendency to release stops on a more regular basis depending on the type of stop combinations (Rojczyk et al. 2013). In the present study, we aim to test the efficiency of audio-visual explanations as opposed to distracted imitation in pronunciation teaching amongst French learners of English. While unreleased stops are rather frequent in French and English - especially in plosives clusters (Byrd, 1993; Davidson, 2010), unreleased plosives in final positions are less common in French (Van Dommelen, 1983). During phase 1 of the experiment, three groups of 12 native French learners of English (level A1/A2, B1/B2 and C1/C2) were asked to read idiomatic expressions containing both homogeneous and heterogeneous sequences of voiceless stops straddled between words, namely, in sequences like “that cat” [ðæt˺ kæt˺], and stops at the end of sentences like “I told him to speak” [tə spiːk˺]. In the second phase of the experiment, one half in each group was given a different task. The first group heard recorded versions of phase 1 sentences and before reading them out loud, counted up to five in their L1. Stimuli for imitation contained no release in the contexts under scrutiny. The other half had to watch a video explaining the phenomenon of unreleased stops with a production of phase-two expressions propped up by hand gestures. They were then asked to re-read the sentences given in phase 1. Based on these results the current study makes recommendations about what working environment should be prioritized in pronunciation teaching both in class and online (Kröger et al. 2010), and suggests ways to assess students and visually keep track of their progress.
Interest in Reading as Facilitating Factor in Acquiring Reading Skills
The article deals with the problem of evoking interest in reading and its connection with successful acquiring of reading skills. Several theoretical concepts of neuropsychology and speech therapy have been analysed with an emphasis on difficulties regarding the process of learning to read in cases of dyslexia and/or reading disorders.
The aim of the study is to give an overview of the interconnection between interest in reading and successful acquiring of reading skills in order to carry out an empirical research with the help of various methods and principles that foster interest to reading. Materials and methods include an analysis of theoretical literature.
The written word helps children to develop their language considerably. Alarming results of the evaluation of student performance according to international surveys make one conclude that the reading literacy indicators leave much to be desired. An analysis of scientific research carried out in different countries shows close connection between children's interest (including reading interest) and their emotional participation in the learning process, specifically, in learning to read: interest increases the efficiency of the process. The latest discoveries in the field of neuropsychology allow to conclude that interest and interactive action can be encouraged and supported if the zones of the person's cortex are not damaged. It should be taken into account when carrying out an empirical research in which children's interest in reading is stimulated by the use of various methods and techniques. Conclusions of neuropsychologic studies are also of utmost importance when analysing the connection between interest in reading and the quality indicators (reading accuracy, speed and comprehension).
Interest in reading is a significant component of acquiring reading skills. Children's active participation in the learning process is a vital factor that encourages their general development. Interest forms the basis for children's wish to learn and read. Interest in reading will develop if teachers and parents initiate purposeful and well-considered activities.
On the basis of information provided by psychological, neuropsychological and speech therapy studies peculiarities and needs of children's individual development must be taken into consideration.
Abbas A. Rezaee, Majid Nemati and Seyyed Ehsan Golparvar
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This paper presents a C++ implementation of the phrase scoring step in phrase-based systems that helps to exploit the available computing resources more efficiently and trains very large systems in reasonable time without sacrificing the system's performance in terms of Bleu score.
Three parallelizing tools are made freely available. The first exploits shared memory parallelism and multiple disks for parallel IOs while the two others run in a distributed environment.
We demonstrate the efficiency and consistency of our tools, in the framework of the Fr-En systems we developed for the WMT and IWSLT evaluation campaigns, in which we were able to generate the phrase table in one third up to one seventh of the time taken by Moses in the same tasks.
We present EFMARAL, a new system for efficient and accurate word alignment using a Bayesian model with Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inference. Through careful selection of data structures and model architecture we are able to surpass the fast_align system, commonly used for performance-critical word alignment, both in computational efficiency and alignment accuracy. Our evaluation shows that a phrase-based statistical machine translation (SMT) system produces translations of higher quality when using word alignments from EFMARAL than from fast_align, and that translation quality is on par with what is obtained using GIZA++, a tool requiring orders of magnitude more processing time. More generally we hope to convince the reader that Monte Carlo sampling, rather than being viewed as a slow method of last resort, should actually be the method of choice for the SMT practitioner and others interested in word alignment.