influenced by external α-radiation (e.g., Duller, 1992 ; Li and Li, 2011 ; Trauerstein et al ., 2014 ; Kenzler et al ., 2015 ), the α-dose rate has to be fully considered for fine grains (~4– 11 μm). To account for the different efficiency in producing luminescence of heavy particles such as α-particles and slightly ionising radiation such as β- and γ-radiation, the so-called α-efficiency must be incorporated when calculating the dose rate ( Aitken, 1985a ). Among the different systems presented for quantifying α-efficiency (see Aitken, 1985b , for a summary), the
the following questions: 1) What are the consequences of local government amalgamations? and 2) Is there a trade-off between the efficiency of outputs and democratic outcomes resulting from municipal amalgamations?
The goal of this review is not to search for the ‘optimal size’ of local governments identified in the literature, but rather to assess the outcomes of amalgamation reforms. While size is an inherent element of all amalgamation reforms and should be taken into account as part of a context-specific analysis of these reforms, the discussion of ‘optimal
measured and modelled δ 13 C in α-cellulose is equal to 0.93, whereas the value of the correlation coefficient between the measured and modelled δ 18 O in α-cellulose is equal to 0.78.
Water use efficiency (WUE) and temperature anomaly
Diffuse air pollution (carbon dioxide) caused the variation in the ratio of water used in plant metabolism to water lost by the plant through transpiration (WUE). In the period of time from 1975 and 2012, according to NASA (2016) the global concentration of mid-tropospheric carbon dioxide ranged from ca . 330 ppm to ca . 393 ppm
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variance ( R 2 ), adjusted explained variance ( R 2 adj ), F value, sign test (ST), reduction of error (RE) and coefficient of efficiency (CE). RE and CE values greater than zero indicate a good reconstruction model fit. The multi-taper method (MTM) of spectral analysis was applied to examine the characteristics of local climate variability in the frequency domain over the full range of our reconstruction ( Mann and Lees, 1996 ). Our analysis used 5 × 3π tapers and a red noise background. Furthermore, to test whether our reconstruction contains a regional climate signal
) , Gosudarstvennaya programma (2017) , Strategicheskiy plan (2018) and recommendations from international institutions, including the World Bank (2017) , point to agriculture as a potentially complementary factor of the country’s economic growth. However, it is necessary not only to diversify agricultural production and increase its efficiency, but also to develop craft and service sectors in rural areas in order to limit the technological and their social degradation that continues since the 1990s.
Today, one of the priorities for rural development in Kazakhstan is to put
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analysis. The detector resolution (FWHM) was 1.8 keV and the relative efficiency was 40% at 1332 keV. The counting time was usually 8 0 ks and IAEA ( RGU, RGTh, RGK) standards were used for calibration. The IAEA Soil-375 standard was used as a reference material for 137 Cs activity. The IAEA-385 standard was used to check the quality of efficiency calibration. To calculate the 238 U content in the sediment, the following gamma lines were taken: 295.1 keV ( 214 Pb), 352.0 keV ( 214 Pb), 609.3 keV ( 214 Bi) and 1120.3 keV ( 214 Bi). For the 232 Th decay chain, the
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