experiment in Mydlniki, it should be noted that the echograms of the DS2000 GPR system are characterised by a better quality and contrast of images, which has allowed to identify the pipes with 50% efficiency for both profiles. In the case of the Mala system, out of the expected 36 observations for a single profile, 15 and 7 pipe tops were reliably identified for profile 1 and profile 2, respectively. None of the echograms, regardless of the system used, identified the pipes R3, R4 or R6.
The mean square position error of the pipe tops identified on the RAMAC/CU II GPR
Adam Łyszkowicz, Joanna Kuczyńska-Siehień and Monika Biryło
The study concerns computation of the gravity potential difference between the Kronsztadt86 datum and the global vertical datum. This method is based on the use of ellipsoidal heights from satellite observations, normal heights obtained from the conducted leveling campaign and quasigeoid/ellipsoid separations computed based on the EGM2008 model. The obtained results indicate that there are substantial differences in the estimated value of the parameter ΔW, computed from three different satellite networks: POLREF, EUVN-DA and ASG-EUPOS. The parameter was determined with sufficient accuracy and the applied systematic error model has low efficiency. The computations reveal that the best value of ΔW for the territory of Poland is 0.43 m2s-2.
Appropriate precision and low cost are the basic conditions that have to be fulfilled by a project of a geodetic network. Reliability, translating into the ability to detect gross errors in the observations and higher certainty of the obtained point position, is an important network characteristic. The principal way to provide appropriate network reliability is to acquire a suitably large number of redundant observations. Optimisation of the observation accuracy harmonisation procedure allowing for the acquisition of an appropriate level of reliability through modification of the observation a priori standard deviations is the focus of this study. Parameterisation of the accuracy harmonisation is proposed. Furthermore, the influence of the individual parameter operation on the effectiveness of the harmonisation procedure is tested. Based on the results of the tests an optimal set of harmonisation parameters which guarantees the maximal efficiency of the harmonisation algorithm is proposed.
Through the example of State Scientific and Production Enterprise «Kartographia» the practical steps on publishing of educational electronic cartographic production in Ukraine are analysed. The main functions of using such products in the process of teaching as a key element of innovation techniques implementation into school education are defined. The authors represent the features of application of system approach to creation of electronic cartographic aids. The requirements to the educational electronic cartographic aids are related to the specific aspects of production tasks and technological solutions.
The most essential part of the process of creation of electronic aid is a methodic processing. The quality and efficiency of the aid are defined by it. Electronic aid general structure which includes a list of programme units, intermodular connections, terms and definitions for hyperlinks is a result of this processing.
Specificity of production tasks causes additional demands to creation of electronic aids. In the article authors consider the requirements and methodic approaches to the content, font style and color composition of electronic aids. Authors also present the recommendations for editor’s work.
Due to the use of system approach to the creation of electronic cartographic aids new models of planning or giving lessons can be used and modern instructional techniques can be implemented as a practical matter.
Intense development of computer technology has taken place in the last several decades made it possible to cartographically present variability of phenomena in a dynamic way. As a result of using animation techniques in cartography there appeared new methods of presentation of changes, referred to as direct. Considering the character of the relation between display time and real time, two basic types of animated maps have been distinguished: temporal and non-temporal. Other criteria of classifying animation are the presence and level of interactivity and the technical criteria of production.
Regardless of the applied classification, perception of the contents of animated maps is one of the main issues, since using animation leads to a significant cognitive load specific for dynamic methods. Fast sequence of data and its quick disappearance can result in omission of some information because in the case of animated maps there is a higher risk of exceeding perception potential of users than in the case of static maps.
Higher efficiency of animated map perception can be achieved by applying methods of cognitive overload reduction determined through experimental research. The most important of them are: using control tools, directing attention with dynamically blinking lights, locating connected objects close to one another, using sound, adapting generalization level to the characteristics of moving images and accounting for the age and experience of map users.
Among more sophisticated solutions are such elements as so-called decay and a combination of static and animated map features in the form of semi-static animations.
The author’s objective is to present the role of base contents for a statistical map and determine its desired features which would influence optimum perception of the main contents of the map. The article consists of two main parts.
The first part discusses selection of cartographic projection. Presented recommendations could be summarized in a short conclusion that application of equal-area projections is the optimum solution. It results from the necessity of preserving correct spatial relations during the perception of the thematic map contents. It is recommended to show cartographic graticule on statistical maps, for it helps to recognize geometrical attributes of the map and plays the localizing role.
The second part of the article concentrates on the issue of selection of base contents’ elements on statistical maps. Such selection depends on the method of presentation of the thematic contents of the map. Because of that the optimum contents of the map is discussed in the context of basic cartographic presentation methods, i.e. the dot method, the choropleth method, the diagram method and the isoline method. The role of base elements in the process of reading of the main contents is also underlined. It is shown that it is not only the localizing role. Including additional elements of base contents facilitates understanding of the spatial distribution of the phenomenon which is the main topic of the map.
The article encourages extension of the contents of statistical maps by additional elements of contents, which, while keeping correct spatial relations, can improve the efficiency of map use.
Nedko Nedkov, Rangel Zaykov, Alexander Matev, Antoniya Ovcharova and Hristofor Kirchev
4. Varlev,I. & Popova, Z. (1999). Waterevapotranspiration-yield. IHM - Sofia.
5. Varlev, I., (1983). Potential efficiency and risk in maize growing in Bulgaria. Agricultural Academy. Sofia.
6. Diez, R.T., Rojas, P.H. & Agudelo, D.O. (1998). Funciones agua produccion y eficiencia del uso agua de genotipes de soya, Acta Agronomica, Universidat Nacional de Columbia, 48 (3 - 4), 28 - 36.
7. Senchukov, G.A. (1986). Effect of irrigation rate on the yield of major crops in the conditions of the Rostov
The author discuss effectiveness of cartographic presentations. The article includes opinions of cartographers regarding effectiveness, readability and efficiency of a map. It reminds the principles of map graphic design in order to verify them using examples of small-scale thematic maps.
The following questions have been asked: Is the map effective? Why is the map effective? How do cartographic presentation methods affect effectiveness of the cartographic message? What else can influence effectiveness of a map?
Each graphic presentation should be effective, as its purpose is to complete written word, draw the recipients’ attention, make text more readable, expose the most important information. Such a significant role of graphics results in the fact that graphic presentations (maps, diagrams) require proper preparation.
Users need to have a chance to understand the graphics language in order to draw correct conclusions about the presented phenomenon. Graphics should demonstrate the most important elements, some tendencies, and directions of changes. It should generalize and present a given subject from a slightly different perspective.
There are numerous examples of well-edited and poorly edited small-scale thematic maps. They include maps, which are impossible to interpret correctly. They are burdened with methodological defects and they cannot fulfill their task.
Cartography practice indicates that the principles related to graphic design of cartographic presentation are frequently omitted during the process of developing small-scale thematic maps used – among others – in the press and on the Internet. The purpose of such presentations is to quickly interpret them. On such maps editors’ problems with the selection of an appropriate symbol and graphic variable (fig. 1A, 9B) are visible. Sometimes they use symbols which are not sufficiently distinguishable nor demonstrative (fig. 11), it does not increase their readability. Sometime authors try too hard to reflect presented phenomenon and therefore the map becomes more difficult to interpret (fig. 4A,B). The lack of graphic sense resulting in the lack of graphic balance and aesthetics constitutes a weak point of numerous cartographic presentations (fig. 13).
Effectiveness of cartographic presentations consists of knowledge and skills of the map editor, as well as the recipients’ perception capabilities and their readiness to read and interpret maps. The qualifications of the map editor should include methodological qualifications supported by the knowledge of the principles for cartographic symbol design, as well as relevant technical qualifications, which allow to properly use the tools to edit a map. Maps facilitate the understanding of texts they accompany and they present relationships between phenomenon better than texts, appealing to the senses.
Myrtill Gráff, Edit Mikó, Bence Zádori and József Csanádi
). Proposals for improving the research efficiency in goats. Small Ruminant Research, 51, 145-153, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2003.08.012
4. Alendri, A., Buttazzoni, L.G., Schneider, J.C., Caroli, A. & Davoli, R. (1990). The Effects of Milk Protein Polymorphisms on Milk Components and Cheese-Producing Ability. Journal Dairy Science, 73, 241-255, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(90)78667-5
5. Lante, A., Lomolino, G., Cagnin, M. & Spettoli, P. (2006). Content and characterisation of minerals in milk and in Crescenza and
parallel processing in visual search . “Cognitive Psychology” Vol. 22, pp. 225–271.
Ciołkosz-Styk A., 2011, Analiza treści i ocena efektywności europejskich planów miast . Doctor dissertation, Uniwersytet Warszawski.
Çöltekin A., Fabrikant S.I., Lacayo M., 2010, Exploring the efficiency of users’ visual analytics strategies based on sequence analysis of eye movement recordings . „Intern. Journal of Geographical Information Science” Vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 1559–1575.
Çöltekin A., Kraak M.-J., 2010, Visual exploratin of eye-movement data using the space