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Tadeusz Rodziewicz, Małgorzata Rajfur and Maria Wacławek
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Tadeusz Rodziewicz, Małgorzata Rajfur and Maria Wacławek
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This study aimed to demonstrate efficiency of documented index method “universal water quality index-UWQI” to evaluate surface water quality and investigate seasonal and temporal changes, in the case of Gediz River Basin Turkey. UWQI expressed results relative to levels according to criteria specified in European legislation (75-440 EEC). The method produced a unitless number ranging from 1 to 100 and a higher number was indicator of better water quality. Water quality is classified into five classes and index scores between 95-100 represent excellent and lower than 24 represent poor quality. In the study, dissolved oxygen-DO, pH, mercury-Hg, cadmium-Cd, total phosphorus-TP, biochemical oxygen demand- BOD and nitrate nitrogen-NO3-N have been chosen as index determinants. Samples analyzed for these variables were collected from five stations on monthly basis along two years. Based on UWQI classification scheme, water quality at sampling stations had scores below 40 and assigned to “marginal” which is between fair and poor quality class. On the other hand sub-indices of water quality determinants showed seasonal differences for some parameters. Cd concentrations were higher in “high flow” and lower values were observed in “low flow” periods. This was explained by negative impact of urban runoff on water quality. On the other hand DO concentrations were higher in “high flow” period. Under “low flow” conditions water quality at upstream stations (where the industrial density is low) was comparably better than downstream part. The study showed that index approach can be efficient tool to: a) evaluate water quality, b) investigate spatial and seasonal variations and finally, c) extract required information from complex data sets that is understandable by non-technical people.
Elżbieta Wołejko, Urszula Wydro and Tadeusz Łoboda
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In last years all countries of the European Union experience decrease of water consumption. What is worse, in most cases large European water treatment plants (WTP) have been design and built decades ago, when water consumption was much higher than nowadays. It is a challenging task to adjust WTP’s capacity to the current water demand as it is associated with costs and safety issues. Minding that fact, authors decided to propose an new authorial methodology of combined reliability-cost efficiency assessment for water supply system with exceeded redundant capacity, based on new index - unit indicator of reliability-cost efficiency. It included both reliability and costs aspects. It was decided to present the new method on example of the pumping subsystems working for WTP in Poland. The research was based on Activity-Based Life Cycle Costs (AB-LCC) methodology together with two-parametric reliability evaluation. Using real operational and financial data an application of proposed authorial reliability-cost indicator was presented. The reliability-cost efficiency assessment allowed to present how operation of each pumping subsystem influenced global operational costs of WTP. This information is essential for decision-making process for rational management of technical facilities.
The aim of the research was to compare selected coagulants efficiency in indicator and chosen dioxin-like PCB removal from surface water. As coagulants, there were used aluminium sulfate and 5 hydrolyzed polyaluminium chlorides, with trade names: PAX-XL1, PAX-XL10, PAX-XL19, PAX-XL60, PAX-XL69. For the research, surface water was used, collected from dam reservoir. The water composition was modified with standard mixtures PCB MIX24 and MIX13, in order to obtain concentration of each congener equal to 300 ng/dm3. The PCB MIX24 mixture was composed of indicator congeners solution: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180, whereas the MIX13 mixture - solution of three dioxin-like PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169. It was demonstrated that the application of aluminium sulfate allowed for reaching better effects for purifying water of PCB, than with the usage of pre-hydrolyzed salts, polyaluminium chlorides. Out of the studied coagulants, the best effects for indicator PCB removal were obtained with the application of aluminium sulfate, total PCB concentration was decreased by 65%. The highest efficiency for indicator congeners removal (90%) was obtained for PCB 138 and 153. After the application of hydrolyzed polyaluminium chlorides PAX-XL1, PAX-XL10 decrease in higher chlorinated PCB concentration was obtained, in the range of 23 to 74%. Selectivity of chosen PCB congener removal, depending on applied coagulant, was demonstrated; with the usage of aluminium sulfate, removal of heptachlorobiphenyl PCB 180 at the level of 34% was obtained, whereas with the application of PAX-XL1 and PAX-XL10 higher reduction efficiency for this congener was obtained, i.e. 83 and 74% respectively. For dioxin-like PCB, after application of aluminium sulfate, total concentration reduction by 74% was obtained, efficiency of this congeners removal amounted to from 54 (PCB 77) up to 72% (PCB 126), similar results were obtained after the usage of PAX-XL1. The lowest PCB removal from water rate was stated for coagulants PAX-XL60 and PAX-XL69.
Zbigniew Suchorab, Danuta Barnat-Hunek, Małgorzata Franus, Grzegorz Łagód and Zbyšek Pavlík
 Życzyńska A. Eksploat Niezawodn. 2013; 15(4):458-462. http://ein.org.pl/sites/default/files/2013-04-25.pdf .
 Ickiewicz I. Ecol Chem Eng S. 2013;20(4):805-816. DOI: 10.2478/eces-2013-0056.
 Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on energy end-use efficiency and energy services and repealing Council Directive 93/76/EEC.2006. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:114:0064:0085:EN:PDF .
 Central Statistical Office. Energy Efficiency in the Years