APHA 1992. Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater. 18 th ed. Washington. American Public Health Association pp. 1100.
APHA 2005. Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater. 21 st ed. Washington. American Public Health Association pp. 1200.
B ergier T., W łodyka -B ergier A. 2012. Efektywność oczyszczania ścieków w przydomowej hybrydowej oczyszczalni hydrofitowo-biologicznej [The efficiency of wastewater treatment with the household hybrid (biological-constructed wetland) wastewater treatment plant
Jacek Gniadek, Jacek M. Pijanowski and Mateusz Śmigielski
The paper presents the studies involving analysis of changes in shape of parcels of arable land under the influence of forest succession. The object of the research is the village Grębosze located in Świętokrzyskie voivodeship. The study material will cover all arable land existing in the studied village. The source of data were numerical registry maps from 1998 and 2013. The basic element of research, enabling comparison of changes in the efficiency of the production process are continuous parts of the parcels covered by one form of use. In the course of the output data processing and determination of the necessary technical parameters for the tested surface elements, the specialized tools and statistics were used. The studies were related to the evaluation of formation of these surface structures on the basis of their shape meter in the form of the so-called costs of cultivation. The obtained results make it possible to tell, to what extent the changes resulting from the consequences of the secondary forest succession influence the process of cultivation of neighbouring arable land.
Magdalena Domańska, Anna Boral, Kamila Hamal, Magdalena Kuśnierz, Janusz Łomotowski and Paulina Płaza-Ożóg
A mann R.I., L udwig W, S chleifer K.H. 1995. Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation. Microbiological Reviews. Vol. 59(1) p. 143–69.
B arillon B., R uel S.M., L anglais C., L azarova V. 2013. Energy efficiency in membrane bioreactors. Water Science Technology. Vol. 67 p. 2685–2691.
B odzek M. 2012. Separacja membranowa w inżynierii środowiska. Podstawy procesów. Cz. V [Membrane separation in environmental engineering: Background of the processes. P. V]. Technologia
Azmeri Azmeri, Alfiansyah Yulianur, Uli Zahrati and Imam Faudli
studies of innovative irrigation management techniques. Aquatic Procedia. Vol. 4 p. 1197–1202. DOI 10.1016/j.aqpro.2015.02.152.
B obojonov I., B erg E., F ranz -V asdeki J., M artius C., L amers J.P.A. 2016. Income and irrigation water use efficiency under climate change: An application of spatial stochastic crop and water allocation model to Western Uzbekistan. Climate Risk Management. Vol. 13 p. 19–30. DOI 10.1016/j.crm.2016.05.004.
C ahyono P., A stuti N.K., R ahmat A. 2016. Analysis of water balance to determine water requirement of pineapple
Bartosz Jawecki, Katarzyna Pawęska and Marcin Sobota
BERGIER T., WŁODYKA-BERGIER A. 2012. Efektywność oczyszczania ścieków w przydomowej oczyszczalni hydrofitowo- biologicznej [The efficiency of wastewater treatment in household wetland and biological treatment plant]. Woda-Środowisko-Obszary Wiejskie. T. 12. Z. 1 (37) p. 25-36.
BŁAŻEJEWSKI R. 2005. Aktualny status prawny przydomowych oczyszczalni ścieków i perspektywy ich rozwoju [Current legal status of household wastewater treatment plants and development perspectives]. Wodociągi- Kanalizacja. Nr 10 p. 24
Hossein Yousefi, Ali Mohammadi, Mitra Mirzaaghabeik and Younes Noorollahi
Shortage of water is considered as one of the most important straits of agricultural development in Iran. The main purpose of this study is to determine virtual water used to pea and bean production and water use efficiency, select the best area for cultivating these two grains and find the virtual water budget for the aforementioned grains. The results showed that among the three provinces main producers of pea in Iran, the highest virtual water of pea belongs to Lorestan with 3534 dm3·kg−1 and the lowest belongs to West Azerbaijan with 2660 dm3·kg−1 in irrigated cultivation. Water use efficiency in irrigated cultivation in Kermanshah and West Azerbaijan are at the same level; however, Kermanshah has enjoyed much more level of virtual water. For beans, the highest amount of virtual water in irrigated cultivation belongs to Lorestan (3651 dm3·kg−1) and the lowest amount refers to Markazi (2725 dm3·kg−1) and also the highest level of water use efficiency for this product refers to Markazi. Also it was found that 160.15 mln m3 of water has been exported from the country water resources by these products so virtual water budget for studied crops were negative.
Comparison of quality of Snyder’s model for determination flood waves was examination in this work. Model parameters were calibrated based on objective functions: percentage error in peak flow (PEPF), percentage error in volume (PEV), peak-weighted root mean square error (PWRMSE), sum of absolute residuals (SAR) and sum of squared residuals (SSR). Quality of model was calculating by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient E. Additionally sensitivity of a model was characterized by its flexibility. The analyses were performed in the watershed of Grabinka. It has been found that the use PWRMSE as the objective function allows to obtain the best quality results of simulation. Furthermore, Snyder’s model is flexible to the change of Cp coefficient.
Małgorzata Gałczyńska, Natalia Mańkowska, Justyna Milke and Marta Buśko
The paper presents the assessment of possibilities and limitations of the use of Lemna minor, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae and Ceratophyllum demersum in removing metals from contaminated waters. Synthetically discussed the role of these species in phytotechnology and their importance in the assessment of surface water status. The variability of concentration of selected metals in waters and the content of metals in the organs of the analysed plants are presented. Their advantages and disadvantages in removing metals from waters due to biological features have been characterized. Minimum and maximum efficiency of metal removal depending on the scale of water pollution was determined. It was found that analysed plants can be used for phytoremediation of metals from water, but the limitation of effectiveness of treatments is the toxicity of these metals to plants and the time of exposure. The highest removal efficiency can be obtained thanks to the use of sequences of single-species filtration systems.
In the article we developed the design principles and implementation of a complex model and optimized the design parameters of drainage. The study was based on the implementation of interconnected structural and technological forecasting simulation and optimization model blocks, which in turn allowed to justify the optimal design parameters and drainage considering multiple natural and agronomic conditions and reclamation facilities. Example of evaluating the performance of drainage on drained lands was made for the conditions of a real project, implemented on lands of agricultural holding “May Day” located within of drainage system “Ikva” in the Rivne region. For the object conditions (average decade formation conditions of the drainage flow module for growing perennial grasses, winter cereals and potatoes) the estimated duration of the growing season was 214 days (100%), of which the total duration of drainage was 60% and included different levels of efficiency: 39% – ecological, 15.5% – technological and 5.5% – economic. The duration of its critical operations (forming module drainage flow exceeds the design of its value) does not exceed 5%. Thus, this approach enables the assessment of drainage with predetermined or specified parameters in the construction or renovation of drainage systems on different levels of effectiveness. It can be effectively used in the overall complex predictive and optimization calculations to substantiate the design and parameters of agricultural drainage, taking into account the variability of natural agrotechnical and reclamation conditions of a real object.
Fayçal Djellouli, Abderrazak Bouanani and Kamila Baba-Hamed
M ashari E shghabad S., O midvar E., S olaimani K. 2014. Efficiency of some meteorological drought indices in different time scales (Case study: Tajan Basin, Iran). ECOPERSIA. Vol. 2. Iss. 1 p. 411–453.
M c K ee T.B., D oesken N.J., K leist J. 1993. The relationship of drought frequency and duration to time scales. Eighth Conference on Applied Climatology. Anaheim, California. No. 1 p. 179–184.
M c K ee T.B., D oesken N.J., K leist J. 1995. Drought monitoring with Multiple Time Scales. 9th Conference on Applied Climatology. Dallas, Texas p