Search Results

1 - 10 of 416 items :

  • "efficiency" x
Clear All

REFERENCES: 1. European Parliament and the Council Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency, amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC [2012] OJ L 315. 2. LR Ekonomikas ministrija. (2013). Koncepcija par Eiropas Parlamenta un Padomes 2012. gada 25.oktobra Direktīvas 2012/27/ES par energoefektivitāti, ar ko groza Direktīvas 2009/125/EK un 2010/30/ES un atceļ Direktīvas 2004/8/EK un 2006/32/EK, prasību pārņemšanu normatīvajos aktos 2013. 3. LR Ekonomikas ministrija. (2013). Ziņojums par Eiropas Parlamenta un

References 1. Iyer, S., & Singh, S.P. (2016). Spectral and power efficiency investigation in single- and multi-line-rate optical wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) networks. Photonics Network Communications. doi: 10.1007/s11107-016-0618-3 2. Keiser, G. E. (1998). A review of WDM technology and applications. GTE Systems & Technology, 21. 3. Pavlovs, D., Grinčišins, A., Bobrovs, V., Gavars, P., & Ivanovs, Ģ. (2016). Research of 10 Gbps NRZ-OOK signal spectral and energy efficiency. In Proc. ELECTRONICS 2016, 13 - 15 June 2016 (pp. 25-29). Lithuania: Kaunas

). Handbook of mathematics for engineers and university students. M.-L.: OGIZ, p. 556 (in Russian). 11. Serebryakov, A., Levin, N., & Sokolov, A. (2012). Efficiency improvement of directdriven synchronous generators with excitation from strontium-ferrite permanent magnets. Latv. J. Phys. Tech. Sci., 49 (4), p. 3-13.

. Environ. Radioact ., 80 , 87–103. 7. International Organization for Standardization. (1995). Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement . Geneva, Switzerland: ISO. 8. Bolívar, J. P., García-Tenorio, R., & García-León, M. (1994). A generalized transmission method for gamma-efficiency determination in soil samples. Nucl. Geophys ., 8 (5), 485–492. 9. Zikovsky, L. (1997). Variation of the detection efficiency of a Ge detector with the height of the sample in Marinelli beaker. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem ., 224 , 171–172. 10. Hubbell, J. H., & Seltzer, S. M


The relatively volatile nature of the particulate matter fraction of e-cigarette aerosols presents an experimental challenge with regard to particle size distribution measure-ments. This is particularly true for instruments requiring a high degree of aerosol dilution. This was illustrated in a previous study, where average particle diameters in the 10-50 nm range were determined by a high-dilution, electrical mobility method. Total particulate matter (TPM) masses calculated based on those diameters were orders of magnitude smaller than gravimetrically determined TPM. This discrepancy was believed to result from almost complete particle evaporation at the dilution levels of the electrical mobility analysis. The same study described a spectral transmission measurement of e-cigarette particle size in an undiluted state, and reported particles from 210-380 nm count median diameter. Observed particle number concentrations were in the 109 particles/cm3 range. Additional particle size measurements described here also found e-cigarette particle size to be in the 260-320 nm count median diameter range. Cambridge filter pads have been used for decades to determine TPM yields of tobacco burning cigarettes, and collection of e-cigarette TPM by fibrous filters is predicted to be a highly efficient process over a wide range of filtration flow rates. The results presented in this work provide support for this hypothesis.

Described here is a study in which e-cigarette aerosols were collected on Cambridge filters with adsorbent traps placed downstream in an effort to capture any material passing through the filter. Amounts of glycerin, propylene glycol, nicotine, and water were quantified on the filter and downstream trap. Glycerin, propylene glycol, and nicotine were effciently captured (> 98%) by the upstream Cambridge filter, and a correlation was observed between filtration efficiency and the partial vapor pressure of each component. The present analysis was largely inconclusive with regard to filter efficiency and particle-vapor partitioning of water. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 26 (2014) 183-190]


The energy transformations involved in the operation of the pumping installations are carried out by pumping aggregates consisting of an electric motor and a pump. In order to provide a full adaptation to the users’ variable demands, variable speed motor driven pumps are used on networks (such motors being equipped with frequency converters). The paper presents a method for determining the global efficiency of a frequency converter-asynchronous motor-pump group. The method has been implemented at the Chiriţa Pumping Station, main facility within the Iasi City water supply system.


For a long time in economic theory and practice, regulation is only linked to the need for state intervention in monopolistic markets, by developing uniform, simple regulatory rules to limit and control the monopoly power, the monopoly price, mergers and acquisitions between companies in the same industry and others. In recent years the prevailing opinion that government regulation is particularly necessary in oligopolistic markets where there are several leading, dominant companies that can influence the price, quantity and quality of the product offered. However, this regulatory policy should not apply to common rules and taking into account the specifics of the market/industry, market structure (concentration level) of the various market segments and the relevant economic activity. The aim of the study: 1) Evaluation of the efficiency of the construction market, 2) Demonstrate the need for government intervention, 3) Guidelines for the implementation of the regulatory function of the government.

. ISSN 2029-4441 print / ISSN 2029-929X online. DOI: 10.3846/bm.2012.082 3. Legislation of the Republic of Latvia. (2016). Darbības programmas “Izaugsme un nodarbinātība” 4.2.1. specifiskā atbalsta mērķa “Veicināt energoefektivitātes paaugstināšanu valsts un dzīvojamās ēkās” īstenošanas noteikumi [Implementing rule of the Operational Programme “Growth and Employment” 4.2.1. the specific objective of the support “Promote energy efficiency investments in the public and residential buildings”]. Retrieved 8 November 2016, from

References 1. Keith, C. H.: Modification of tobacco smoke; in The chemistry of tobacco and tobacco smoke, edited by I. Schmeltz, Plenum Press, New York-London, 1972, pp. 149-166. 2. Dwyer, R. W., and S. G. Abel: The efficiencies of cellulose acetate filters; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 13 (1986) 243—253. 3. Norman, V., A. M. Ihrig, R. A. Shoffner and M. S. Ireland: The effect of tip dilution on the filtration efficiency of upstream and downstream segments of cigarette filters; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 12 (1984) 178—185. 4. Yamamoto, T., U. Anzai and T. Okada

[2009] OJ L 211:55, art 2, annex 1. 4. Barkans J., and Zalostiba D. (2009). Protection against Blackouts and Self-Restoration of Power Systems. Riga: RTU Publishing House. 5. Energy Business Reports. (2011). Smart Grid Industry Market Guide . Available at 6. Bariss, U., Kuzņecova, T., Laicāne, I., and Blumberga, D. (2014). Analysis of factors influencing energy efficiency in a smart metering pilot. Energetika 60 (2), 125–135. ISSN 0235-7208. 7. KPFI. Project No. KPFI-14/28 Overview of monitoring results for 2013 . 8