höchste, sondern in der Regel nur eine befriedigende Gewinnrate erreichen Vgl. ebd., S. 9–10 und Ders.: Die Strategie der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung, Stuttgart 1967; sowie Herbert A. Simon: »A Behavioral Model of Rational Choices«, in: Quarterly Journal of Economics 69 (1952), S. 98–118; Gary S. Becker: »Irrational Behavior and Economic Theory«, in: Journal of Political Economy 52 (1962), S. 1–13; Harvey Leibenstein: »Allocative Efficiency versus X-Efficiency«, in: American Economic Review 56 (1966), S. 392–415; Richard Cyert/James March: A Behavioral Theory of the
Stefan Couperus, Harm Kaal, Nico Randeraad and Paul van Trigt
, the reports reflected the extent to which the governor held the public order, economy, health, and political and administrative situation of the province to be in accordance with the expectations of the ruling government. The reports were not infrequently matter-of-course assessments of the state of the province, full of reassuring remarks, even in times of crisis. Over the years it became more and more tempting for governors to simply copy what they had written the year before, thereby turning the reports into a habitual exercise, summing up the numbers of incoming
Behörden und Antragsteller/innen im Streit um Erwerbsmöglichkeiten
sprechen. Vgl. Kristina Graaff, Noa Ha, »Introduction. Street Vending in the Neoliberal City. A Global Perspective on the Practices and Policies of a Marginalized Economy«, in: Dies. (Hg.), Street Vending in the Neoliberal City. A Global Perspective on the Practices and Policies of a marginalized Economy, New York, Oxford 2015, S. 1-15, hier S. 3; vgl. zum Problem der Informalität allgemein Alfonso Morales, »Epistemic Reflections on the ›Informal Economy‹«, in: The International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 17 (1997) ¾, S. 1–17; Versuche der staatlichen
Flows in Global Economy, New York 2003, p.347–370.
How can we get the transplanting process right? That is the problem which the research program presented here intends to investigate. We know from the few successful examples that the key to transplanting lies in the adaptation of the imported, foreign standard to the local context. See Joachim Zweynert, »Economic Culture and Transition«, in: Intereconomics 41 (2006), p. 182–188; and Valentin Seidler, »When Do Institutional Transfers Work? The Relation between Institutions, Culture and the Transplant Effect: the
Frits van der Meer, Gerrit Dijkstra and Toon Kerkhoff
processes in terms of public policy and organization also generated a demand for generalist and professional civil servants.
After World War II the need for an able and professional civil service received an additional powerful boost by having to confront the immediate necessities of the post-war reconstruction, given the large-scale destruction which had occurred during the German occupation. This need was strengthened by the rapid social and economic development of the Dutch economy and society from the late 1950s and 1960s. The war had profound effects on the
hours a day and he showed me the unsightly bruises and swelling around his ankles from this practice, his blood following gravity. He said that his parents have a house in Morocco and he wants to return, but he wants a house of his own; he is not able to save because the economy has stagnated and prices are too high; his salary stays the same, at about 2,000 euros a month; 400 goes to house, 300 to the car, and the rest is simply gone by the end of the month. He said that when they converted to the euro, 100,000 lire were supposed to equal 50 euros, but instead, they
of modernization and that these studies could provide new perspectives on historical developments in politics, science and economy. This introduction is meant to illustrate what the historian of emotion does, how the discipline has evolved in recent years and how its mode of analysis can challenge the existing literature on the history of bureaucracy and enlarge our understanding of its functioning.
One of the things that drives the work of historians of emotions is the need to articulate the implicit and not always clearly elaborated understanding of emotions in
administration presents this system as the answer to problems posed by the patronage system. At the turn of the 19th century, following the rise of the political economy movement, according to which »politics, society and the economy could be managed through rational knowledge, observable laws, and predictive patterns«, David Banoub, »The Patronage Effect: Civil Service Reforms, Job Seeking, and State Formation in Victorian Canada«, unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Carleton University, Department of History, Carleton 2013, p. 23. and because of the disdain among the country
borders, were put forward in many writings of the time, as well as in parliament. In general, they were motivated by a need to provide provinces with the resources necessary to respond to the needs of the governed, and to adjust to the transformations then under way in the country’s society and economy. See Massimiliano Spinola: »Della ripartizione territoriale del Regno ďItalia«, in: Rivista dei comuni italiani 3 (1863), p.3–54; Massimiliano Spinola: Saggio sopra la necessità ďuna legge che stabilisca il dicentramento amministrativo ed assicuri la libertà ed autonomia
The French Consulate in Salonica in the 19th Century
. Rather, it reflected the general mode of functioning of French consular installations in the Empire, and specifically in the area then known locally as Rumelia, or in the West as ›Turkey-in-Europe‹, and which gradually, during the 19th century, would come to be called ›the Balkans‹ or ›the Balkan Peninsula‹ ( fig. 1 ). Part of the reason for such a littoral orientation was that non-Ottomans were forbidden to settle in the imperial hinterland until 1838, Ilkay Sunar: »Anthropologie politique et économique: ľEmpire ottoman et sa transformation«, in: Annales. Économies