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Lower Leg Length is Associated with Running Economy in High Level Caucasian Distance Runners

of three ( Kong and de Heer, 2008 ) or six ( Legaz and Eston, 2005 ) skinfolds have been related to distance running performance. However, there is equivocal data about how running economy (RE) is related to anthropometric and/or body composition variables. Runners with proportionally lower body mass concentrated in the extremities, particularly in the legs, would perform less work moving their body segments during running, if all other factors are unchanged ( Myers and Steudel, 1985 ). Therefore, leg mass and the distribution of leg mass might be important

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10 km running performance predicted by a multiple linear regression model with allometrically adjusted variables

trained and untrained individuals ( Conley and Krahenbuhl, 1980 ; Noakes et al., 1990 ; Stratton et al., 2009 ). A factor which may be related to poor predictive power of VO 2max is the difference in body dimensions ( Chamari et al., 2005 ; Eisenmann et al., 2001 ; Vanderburgh and Laubach, 2008 ), as studies have often not considered variations in body mass when measuring VO 2max . Other physiological variables, such as running economy (RE), defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running ( Saunders et al., 2004 ), has been associated with

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Eccentric contraction-induced muscle injury does not change walking economy in older adults

References Ahmadi S, Sinclair PJ, Davis GM. Muscle oxygenation after downhill walking-induced muscle damage. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging, 2008; 28: 55-63. Braun WA, Dutto DJ. The effects of a single bout of downhill running and ensuing delayed onset of muscle soreness on running economy performed 48h later. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2003; 90: 29-34. Chen TC, Nosaka K, Tu JH. Changes in running economy following downhill running. J Sports Sci, 2007; 25: 55-63. Chen

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Intra-Subject Variability of 5 Km Time Trial Performance Completed by Competitive Trained Runners

., 1992; Winter et al., 2007 ). Evidence suggests strong correlations between V . $\it V^{.}$ O 2max and 5 km performance (males, r = −0.85, females, r = −0.80; Ramsbottom et al., 1987 ). Other performance traits associated with 5 km distance include a high lactate threshold ( Noakes et al., 1990 ) and efficient running economy ( Conley and Krahenbuhl, 1980 ). Subsequently, when compared with greater running distances, 5 km running trials may provide a more maximal physiological measure of running performance, and as such, present a useful outcome measure when

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The Role of Government in Tourism: Linking Competitiveness, Freedom, and Developing Economies

competitiveness and corruption: a cross-country analysis. Tourism Economics , 16(3), 477–492. DOI: 10.5367/000000010792278392. Datta-Chaudhuri, M. (1990). Market failure and government failure. Journal of Economic Perspectives , 4(3), 25–39. DOI: 10.1257/jep.4.3.25. Dawson, J. W. (2003). Causality in the freedom-growth relationship. European Journal of Political Economy , 19(3), 479–495. DOI: 10.1016/S0176–2680(03)00009–0. de Haan, J., & Siermann, L. J. (1998). Further evidence on the relationship between economic freedom and economic growth. Public choice

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A Rapidly-Incremented Tethered-Swimming Test for Defining Domain-Specific Training Zones

., 2004 ; Yoon et al., 2007 ). This has resonance for swimming because the incremental protocol that is typically employed ( Fernandes et al., 2003 , 2011 ; Ribeiro et al., 2015 ) comprises 7-8 steps and, therefore, overall test duration can exceed 12 minutes. Despite its non-steady-state nature, the smooth-ramp test also reveals a V . $\mathop{\text V}\limits^. $ O 2 /work-rate slope that serves as a measure of exercise economy ( Whipp et al., 1981 ). It is generally believed that improving V . $\mathop{\text V}\limits^. $ O 2max , V . $\mathop

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Triathlon wetsuit removal strategy: physiological cost of running with a wetsuit

exiting the water or waiting until reaching the bike. Since there are no data on the physiological cost of triathlon transition, our approach was to determine the running economy while not wearing a wetsuit, wearing the wetsuit half way down, wearing the wetsuit fully up and carrying the wetsuit. Another experimental approach would be to measure VO 2 while an athlete exits the water and transitions to the bike. However, it was important to first know running economy while running at a steady state before including energetic cost of taking the wetsuit off. It seems

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Gross Efficiency and the Relationship with Maximum Oxygen Uptake in Young Elite Cyclists During the Competitive Season

: a longitudinal study. Jpn J Physiol , 2000; 50(3): 381-388 10.2170/jjphysiol.50.381 11016988 Lucia A Hoyos J Pardo J Chicharro JL Metabolic and neuromuscular adaptations to endurance training in professional cyclists: a longitudinal study Jpn J Physiol 2000 50 3 381 – 388 Lucia A, Hoyos J, Perez M, Santalla A, Chicharro JL. Inverse relationship between VO 2max and economy/efficiency in world-class cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002; 34(12): 2079-2084 12471319 10.1097/00005768-200212000-00032 Lucia A Hoyos J Perez M

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The changes in running economy during puberty in overweight and normal weight boys

likelihood. Statist. Med., 11: 1305-19. DOI: 10.1002/sim.4780111005. 4. DeJaeger D., Willems P.A., Heglund N.C. (2001) The energy cost of walking in children. Eur. J. Physiol., 441: 538-43. DOI: 10.1007/s004240000443. 5. Donkervliet E., Smits T., Ziemba A.W., Kemper H.C.G., Wagenaar R.C. (2000) Can sex and puberty-related differences and running economy be explained by the differences in co-ordination patterns? Biol. Sport, 17: 243-54. 6. Drinkard B., McDuffie J., McCann S., Uwaifo G.I., Nicholson J., Yanovski J.A. (2001) Relationship between walk/run performance and

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Computational Estimation of Football Player Wages

Universidad de Oviedo , 125–146. Frick, B. (2007). The football player’s labor market: Empirical evidence from the major european leagues. Scottish Journal of Political Economy , 54 (3), 422–446. Frick, B. (2011). Performance, salaries, and contract length: empirical evidence from german soccer. International Journal of Sport Finance, 6 (2), 87. Friedman, J. H. (2002). Stochastic gradient boosting. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis , 38 (4), 367–378. Garcia-del Barrio, P., & Pujol, F. (2007). Pay and performance in the spanish soccer

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