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“Pool it or lose it?” – a contrastive analysis of discourses concerning EU military integration and demilitarisation in the Baltic Sea

and State Power from Messina to Maastricht . Cornell Studies in Political Economy . Ithaca (NY): Cornell University Press. Morozov, V., 2002. Human Rights and Foreign Policy Discourse in Today’s Russia: Romantic Realism and Securitisation of Identity. COPRI Working Papers (6/2002). Müller, P., 2016. EU foreign policy: no major breakthrough despite multiple crises. Journal of European Integration , 38(3), pp.359–374. Myntti, K., 2016. “Putin driver oss mot Nato”. Vasabladet 8 June 2016 . Niinistö, J., 2016a. Ahvenanmaan asia. Jussi

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Us and European Integration Prior to 1968

Abstract

This paper surveys the history of the United States policy towards European integration from 1945 up to 1968 before President Nixon came into office. Drawing on a detailed analysis of the documents mostly obtainable from the official websites of the US Department of State, the US National Archives, and the EU Historical Archives, the paper argues that it was the European geopolitical and economic context after the Second World War and the United States national interests which moulded this country’s pro-European integration policy. Thus, the paper will begin with an analysis of the search for global influence between the United States and the Soviet Union before examining how the United States redefined its core interests in recognition of the Soviet threat. Then, it will explore the role that the United States played in reconstructing Western European economy and defending it physically. Also, it is argued that the United States and Western Europe took concerted action together to create the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), European Economic Community (EEC), and the European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom), the very first supranational institutions which have made the European integration process irreversible. It will be concluded that the vitality of the European integration project depended on US economic and political capital for its success.

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Aimed for the Better, Ended up with the Worst: Russia and International Order

References Charap, Samuel, and Jeremy Shapiro. 2014. ‘How to Avoid a New Cold Wax’, Current History, vol. 113, no. 765. Christensen, Paul T. 2013. ‘Russia as Semiperiphery: Political Economy, the State, and Society in Contemporary World System’, in Neil Robinson, ed. The Political Economy of Russia. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, pp. 169-189. Glanville, Luke. 2013. ‘The Myth of “Traditional” Sovereignty’, International Studies Quarterly, vol. 57, no. 1. Hopf, Ted. 2013. ‘Common

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‘Consolidation’ and ‘Securitisation’ of the Russian State. Implications for Power Projection

-975. Sutela, Pekka. 2012. The political economy of Russia. Oxon: Routledge. The Bank of Finland Institute for Economies in Transition. 2014. Bofit Russia Statistics. At http://www.suomenpankki.fi/botit_en/seuranta/venajatilastot/Pags/default.aspx

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Ukraine‘s deterrence failure: Lessons for the Baltic States

References Anderson, J., Larsen, J. and Holdorf, P. (2013). Extended Deterrence and Allied Assurance: Key Concepts and Current Challenges for U.S. Policy . [online] Colorado: USAF Institute for National Security Studies at the USAF Academy, Available at: http://www.usafa.edu/df/inss/OCP/OCP69.pdf [Accessed 3 Nov. 2016]. Aslund, A. (2015). Russia’s War on Ukraine’s Economy. [online] Project Syndicate, Available at: https://www.projectsyndicate.org/commentary/russia-war-on-ukraine-economy-by-anders-aslund-2015-07?barrier=true [Accessed 3 Nov

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The EU Migration Crisis and the Baltic Security

prosperity: German companies see refugees as opportunity’, Der Spiegel 27 August. Available from: <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/refugeesare-an-opportunity-for-the-german-economy-a-1050102.html>. [20 September 2015]. ‘EUBAM Libya: Factsheet’, January 2015. Available from: <http://www.eeas.europa.eu/csdp/missions-and-operations/eubamlibya/pdf/factsheet_eubam_libya_en.pdf>. [1 December 2015]. European Commission 2015a, 'EU-Turkey joint action plan', 15 October. Available from: <http://europa.eu/rapid/pressrelease_MEMO-15-5860_en

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Does Latvia Matter in Regional Geopolitics?

-143. MOLDER, H., 2011. The Cooperative Security Dilemma in the Baltic Sea Region. Journal of Baltic Studies, 42(1), pp. 143-168. MUIŽNIEKS, N., 2011. Latvian-Russian Relations: Dynamics Since Latvia’s Accession to the EU and NATO. Riga: University of Latvia. OJA, K., 2015. No Milk for the Bear: the Impact on the Baltic States of Russia’s Counter-Sanctions. Baltic Journal of Economics, 15(1), pp. 38-49. OZOLIŅŠ, J., VĒVERIS, A. and BENGA, E., 2015. The Role of EU Funds in Diversification of Rural Economy in Latvia. Research for Rural Development, 2

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How Russian Soft Power Fails in Estonia: Or, Why the Russophone Minorities Remain Quiescent

from http://www.mid.ru/brp_4.nsf/0/76389FEC168189ED44257B2E0039B16D (last accessed, 4 November 2015). Nye, J. S., Jr. (2004), Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics, (New York, Public Affairs). Paas, T. (2000), ’The Gravity Approach for Modeling International Trade Patterns for Economies in Transition’, International Advances in Economic Research, 6, 4, pp. 633-648. Popescu, N. & Wilson, A. (2009), The Limits of Enlargement-Lite: European and Russian Power in the Troubled Neighbourhood, (London, European

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China and the Baltic States: strategic challenges and security dilemmas for Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia

), 10 July. [online] Available at https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/exercise-joint-sea-2017-new-step-russo-chinese-naval-cooperation . [Accessed 14 Feb. 2018] Hankewitz, S. (2017). The Joint Russia-China Drill to See 10 Warships in the Baltic Sea, Estonian World , 19 July. (online) Available at http://estonianworld.com/security/joint-russia-china-drill-see-10-warships-baltic-sea/ . [Accessed 14 Feb. 2018] Heijmans, P. (2017). As CEE Warms to China, Experts Warn of Risk. Nikkei Asian Review , 1 Jan. [online] Available at https://asia.nikkei.com/Politics-Economy

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