Electra Papadopoulou, Konstantinos Vaitsas, Ioannis Fallas, Giorgos Tsipas, Konstantinos Chrissafis, Dimitrios Bikiaris, Constantina Kottaridi and Konstantinos E. Vorgias
1. McNeill JR, Engelke P Mensch und Umwelt im Zeitalter des Anthropozan. In: Iriye A Geschichte der Welt 1945 bis heute. Die globalisierte Welt. C.H. Beck, München, S. 2013, 357-534
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A. Mahnitko, J. Gerhards, T. Lomane and S. Ribakov
Creation of Power Reserves Under the Market Economy Conditions
The main task of the control over an electric power system (EPS) is to ensure reliable power supply at the least cost. In this case, requirements to the electric power quality, power supply reliability and cost limitations on the energy resources must be observed. The available power reserve in an EPS is the necessary condition to keep it in operation with maintenance of normal operating variables (frequency, node voltage, power flows via the transmission lines, etc.). The authors examine possibilities to create power reserves that could be offered for sale by the electric power producer. They consider a procedure of price formation for the power reserves and propose a relevant mathematical model for a united EPS, the initial data being the fuel-cost functions for individual systems, technological limitations on the active power generation and consumers' load. As the criterion of optimization the maximum profit for the producer is taken. The model is exemplified by a concentrated EPS. The computations have been performed using the MATLAB program.
the Zero Emissions Biorefinery. Presented at the 4th Annual Word Congress on Zero Emissions. Windhoek (Namibia).
5. Gravitis, J., & Suzuki, M. (1999). Biomass Refinery - a Way to Produce Value-Added Products and Base for Agricultural Zero Emissions System. Proceedings of 1999 International Conference on Agricultural Engineering. Beijing (China).
6. Gravitis, J. (1999). Biorefinery and Lignocellulosics Economy Towards Zero Emissions. In: Targeting Zero Emissions for the Utilisation of Renewable Resources (Biorefinery, Chemical
Klāvs, G., Kudreņickis I., & Kundziņa, A. (2009). Feed-in tariffs and competitiveness of small scale wood fuel CHP plants in Latvia. Latv. J. Phys. Tech. Sci. (5), 24-34.
Duvia, A., Gaia, M. (2002). ORC plants for power production from biomass from 0.4 MW el to 15 MW el : Technology, efficiency, practical experiences and economy. Presented at: the 7 th Holzenergie - Symposium, October 2002, ETH Zürich (Switzerland).
Regulations No 221. Regarding Electricity Production
E. Pudzis, A. Adlers, I. Pukite, S. Geipele and N. Zeltins
Recognising the fact that economic realities change the world faster than global politics, in 2010 the European Commission approved the strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, called EUROPE 2020, in order to promote greater economic independence and achieve a more sustainable future. The strategy puts forward three mutually reinforcing priorities: (P1) Smart Growth: developing an economy based on knowledge and innovation; (P2) Sustainable Growth: Promoting a more resource efficient, greener and more competitive economy; (P3) Inclusive Growth: Promoting a high-employment economy delivering social and territorial cohesion.
In the context of EUROPE 2020, the Smart Specialisation Strategy in Latvia (RIS3) has been set up and introduced as a strategic document for the development of support mechanisms of high value-added economic growth, including the maritime technology sector.
The present study explores the mechanisms for the introduction of Blue Growth and RIS3 Strategies, which should be used to develop the maritime technology industry by assessing the efficiency of these mechanisms. Thus, the study addresses the issues of the implementation of modern technologies in the coastal municipalities and planning regions of Latvia.
Nowadays, more and more attention is being paid to the country's economy, construction industry and real estate market's sustainable development and to the studies related to these issues. The aim of the research is to analyse significant aspects of sustainable development of construction activities and real estate market, with particular focus on environmental aspects of construction or the role of green buildings. The research includes an integrated approach of construction industry analysis and analysis of real estate operations area. Scientific and practical solutions and recommendations will enable the industry participants to be introduced to the main sustainable aspects of construction industry development, which, in their turn, can improve the overall performance of the industry in the long term.
F. Molochko, A. Molochko, J. Ekmanis, N. Zeltins and V. Zebergs
Estimation of the Energy Security Level and Definition of the Criteria for Damage Forecasts
In the work, the energy security indicators in a region (a state) are considered, and two general directions are proposed for search among the criteria for estimation and forecast of the damage inflicted by power supply limitations: based on the differentiated calculations for each economic subject, and on the generalised indices of regional economy. Of especial interest is analysis of a recently introduced damage intensity factor and its dependence on the level of limitations and the type of energy carriers.
The 694-790 MHz (700 MHz) band was allocated by the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12) in ITU Region 1 (Europe included), to the mobile service on a co-primary basis with other services to which this band was allocated on the primary basis and identified for the International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT). At the same time, the countries of Region 1 will be able also to continue using these frequencies for their broadcasting services if necessary. This allocation will be effective immediately after 2015 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-15). In order to make the best possible use of this frequency band for mobile service, a worldwide harmonized frequency arrangement is to be prepared to allow for large economies of scale and international roaming as well as utilizing the available spectrum in the best possible way, minimizing possible interference between services, facilitating deployment and cross-border coordination. The authors analyze different possible frequency arrangements and conclude on the frequency arrangement most suitable for Europe.
In the paper, the changes in electric energy consumption are analyzed as associated with structural changes in the Latvian economy of postsocialistic period. To the analysis, a particular approach is applied, which consists in comparison of the basic and specific electricity consumption indices in West-, Central-, and East-European states for the time span of 1990-2010, with differences and tendencies of changes revealed. Tendencies of the type are determined for the electric energy consumption in Latvia, and recommendations are given for the use of such indices in the relevant forecasts.
Shipkov, P. (2009). Science for the rational use of energy resources. Latv. J. Phys. Tec. Sci. 5 , 3-15 (in Latvian).
Seibert, M. (2009). Applied Photosynthesis for Biofuels Production. http://www.photobiology.info/Seibert.html
Gravitis, J., & Abolins, J. (2009). Energy - the real price for everything in an ecological economy. Economía Ecológica , 27 , 148-149.
Gravitis, J., Abolins, J., & Kokorevics, A. (2008). Integration of biorefinery