T. Peráček, B. Mucha, P. Brestovanská and Ľ. Strážovská
The question of drug availability is a key requirement for each country. Their deficiency can cause fatal consequences for the health of the population. For this reason, the production and distribution of medicines represents the economic potential of the state, which is also protected and regulated in the Slovak Republic. Drug distribution is also part of every market economy as it is the primary form of business-to-customer (B2C) offering. At first glance, the promotion of drugs might seem to be just marketing. But this area is under the scrutiny of the Slovak legislations. From the point of view of the systemic nature of law, advertising of medicinal products is regulated both in public law and private law. This is particularly the area of administrative law, commercial law and civil or criminal law, which must respect the often complicated penetration of European law into national law. The issue of ad management and the associated availability of medicines, in our terms, is at the centre of public interest. The main aim of the authors in this paper is to examine not only the European but especially the national legal regulation of the advertising of medicines in the context of the decision-making activity of the Slovak authorities supervising compliance with the legal restrictions on the promotion of pharmaceutical products. Another goal is to identify the problems in application practice and to propose ways to eliminate identified shortcomings by specific procedures. The authors, through scientific and doctrinal interpretation, examine selected statutes of the Law on Advertising and related legislation pertaining to the issue of drug advertising. Through expert literature, jurisprudence and the decision-making processes of the administrative authorities, they seek answers to practical application problems. At the end of the contribution, they critically analyse the identified shortcomings and propose appropriate measures to eliminate them.
Introduction: Recently the issue of emotional intelligence has become a widespread theme of discussion. This review paper is made a contribution to this debate. Discovering of effective predictive and protective factors for depression would have far-reaching consequences for society, science and economy.
Material and Methods: To investigate this issue, we searched articles available in the Google Scholar and PudMed databases under the following terms: emotional intelligence, depression, emotional intelligence and depression for the years 1999-2019. Accessible literature allowed to show basic information of emotional intelligence, detect a system of relationships between emotional intelligence level and depression, and present recommendations.
Results and Discussion: The result of this analysis is a statement that all components of emotional intelligence can be a defense against depression. People with high abilities in regulation their own emotions have large social support, what protect them against depression. The capable managing one’s own and others’ emotions create large and deep interpersonal relationships, what provide more emotional support and tangible assistance during everyday challenges. Stressful life events are among the most powerful predictors of depression, and high level of emotional intelligence enable to cope with them more effectively.
Conclusions: The present text will constitute an impulse to explore this theme more. Moreover, there is a recommendation for researchers to create more effective and simplified tests for examining the level of emotional intelligence in case of spreading them much more and use them in a routine psychiatric practice. A confirmation of the title hypothesis can stand a key to struggle with depression.
Vitamin D - „the sunshine vitamin” is essential for the good functioning of the human body. The most important forms of the vitamin D are the vitamin D2 and the vitamin D3, both biologically inactived. Vitamin D can come from: diet or nutritiv suplimentts and skin. The activation of vitamin D is effect in two steps to the physiologically active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D]. The biological actions of Vitamin D involve regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional level and are mediated through binding to a Vitamin D Receptor (VDR). Vitamin D has multiple roles: hormonale/ nonhormonale, skeletale/nonscheletale, genomice/nongenomice. Interesting is inversely corelation between Vitamin D and total body fat (BMI) and correlation between Vitamin D and cognitive impairment, especially Alzheimer Disease or delirium during hospitalisation. The curent recomandations regarding the supplying with Vitamin D are different for regions of the globe, also differ depending on the baseline serum Vitamin D and on the desired effect. So, potential nonskeletal effects occur at levels >30ng/ml, above 50-75ng/ml, serum level who should become the target of the supplementation. The loading dose should be considered perioperatively for rapid effects. In conclusion, Vitamin D is more than just a vitamin. It is a substance with multiple roles in body’s economy, and in recent years there has been an interest in the relation be tween vitamin D deficiency and obesity or cognitive impairment. The majority of the data supports association, not causation, of low vitamin D levels. In other words, much of data does not clearly support the idea that vitamin D supplementation in a patient with low vitamin D levels reduces the risk of these diseases. But, the supplimentation is very easy and no harm might be done.