Marcin Maciejczyk, Joanna Gradek, Jadwiga Szymura, Jerzy Cempla, Magdalena Więcek and Łukasz Tota
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Apart from influencing the quality of life, occupational injuries and illnesses can pose a large economic burden to a society. There are many studies that estimate the costs of occupational injuries and illnesses in highly developed economies, but the evidence for other countries is scarce. This study aimed to estimate the financial costs of occupational injuries and illnesses to Croatian government and employers in 2015. Workers were excluded due to the lack of data. Costs were estimated by analysing available data sources on occupational health and safety. Financial costs were grouped in several categories: medical costs, productivity losses, disability pensions, compensation for physical impairment, administrative costs, and legal costs. Unlike in other studies, the costs of compliance with occupational safety and health regulations were also investigated. In 2015, financial costs to employers were twice higher than costs to the government (HRK 604.6 m vs HRK 297 m). Employers additionally covered around HRK 300 m of compliance costs. Taking into account that financial costs of occupational injuries and illnesses are significant, even without including the costs to workers, policy makers should put additional efforts into their prevention. A prerequisite is transparency in Croatian Health Insurance Fund’s expenditures, as well as more detailed data on lost days from work by industries, causes of injury etc. Organisations in charge of occupational health and safety and policy makers should observe relevant statistics in monetary terms too.
Nanotoxicology for Safe and Sustainable Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology is the term given to those areas of science and engineering where the phenomena take place at nanoscale dimensions. Nanoparticles are particles with <100 nm in one dimension. They have different physical, chemical, electrical and optical properties than those that occur in bulk samples of the same material. Understanding these nanoscale properties and finding ways to engineer new nanomaterials will have a revolutionary impact, from more efficient energy generation and data storage to improved methods for diagnosing and treating diseases. Nanotechnology is poised to become a major factor in the world's economy and part of our everyday lives in the near future. Hundreds of tonnes of nanoparticles already enter the environment annually, but still very little is known of their interactions with biological systems. Recent studies indicate that some nanoparticles are not completely benign to biological and environmental targets. The challenge for toxicologists is to identify key factors that can be used to predict toxicity, permit targeted screening, and allow material scientists to generate new, safer nanoparticles with this structure-toxicity information in mind. The aim of this paper is to summarize some known facts about nanomaterials and discuss future perspectives, regulatory issues and tasks of the emerging branch of toxicology, that is, nanotoxicology.
Agima Ljaljević, Elvir Zvrko and Marija Stojiljković
Tobacco Use Among Youth: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in Montenegro
Smoking is a burning healthcare and economy issue, especially in underdeveloped countries. The aim of this study was to determine the number of smokers among elementary school students in Montenegro and to assess the correlates of tobacco use. The study was done in 2003 using the World Health Organization Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Our data showed that children as young as ten years smoked. There were 3.6 % permanent smokers and one in three students (30.6 %) experimented with smoking. More than two thirds who smoked agreed that they should quit smoking, and three fourths tried to quit. This study has also shown that children talk too little about smoking in schools and are exposed to passive smoking at home and elsewhere. Activities to solve the elementary school smoking problem should include preventive programs to be introduced into regular school curricula because this is the only way to address the issue properly. In addition, legislation prohibiting indoor tobacco smoking should be implemented rigorously to protect children from passive smoking in public places.
Magdalena Sikora, Marina Valek, Zdenka Šušić, Vera Santo and Dario Brdarić
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Mariana Tozlovanu, Delphine Canadas, Annie Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Christine Frenette, Robert J. Paugh and Richard A. Manderville
renal tumor formation by ochratoxin A in rodents. Mol Nutr Food Res 2009;53:467-78.
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, Knudsen B, Stolarick K. The University and Creative Economy [displayed 3 July 2014]. Available at http://www.creativeclass.typepad.com/thecreativityexchange/files/universityandthecreativeeconomy.pdf
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Malihe Sadeghi, Pakzad Rahmati, Zahra Ramezani Pour, Elham Goharinejad and Mehdi Kahouei
hospitals to implement RFID technology] Int J Travel Med Glob Health 2015 3 103 5 In Persian
 Najaf Beyki R. [Culture and Development in the Third World]. Journal of Economy an Management. 2006; 68:25–32. [In Persian] Najaf Beyki R [Culture and Development in the Third World] Journal of Economy an Management 2006 68 25 32 In Persian
 Leidner DE, Kayworth T. A review of culture in information systems research: toward a theory of information technology culture conflict. MIS Q. 2006; 30:357–99. 10.2307/25148735 Leidner DE Kayworth
Milorad Mirilović, Branko Velebit, Spomenka Djurić, Branislav Vejnović, Mirjana Dimitrijević, Nada Tajdić and Dragan Rogožarski
Critical indicators of intensive production in hog raising are continuity of production, high level of produced series-tours, application of the most contemporary technological achievements without any turnover of capital, high merchandise turnover, and intensive usage of the reproduction potential of breeding material. Production of piglets represents one of the most essential phases in the production of pork meat. In spite of genetic factors, duration of interval wean-conception is one of the basic factors in determination of bringing forth indexes and number of piglets per litter. In order to recognize production costs of piglets completely we found nutrition costs for piglets and sows represent 61%, while other costs such as personal incomes, veterinary services, water, energy, losses, and amortization represent 39% of total costs. On the basis of cost price per feeding day of a sow and the number of piglets per litter, production costs of piglets older than 28 days with an average body weight of 7 kg were determined. Price cost per piglet after weaning, with 7 kg average body weight, and 146 days of reproduction process accounts for 21,78 EUR if there are 10 piglets in a litter. If the reproductive cycle would last exactly the same and if successful conception would be achieved 25 days after weaning, production cost per piglet would be 23,79 EUR.