The Journal of Polish Academy of Sciences Committee on Agronomic Sciences, Section of Land Reclamation and Environmental Engineering in Agriculture and Institute of Technology and Life Sciences in Falenty
This case study summarizes the current knowledge in Finland on the efficiency of constructed wetlands to improve water quality at the same time providing multiple benefits. The efficiency is highly dependent on the wetland’s relative size compared to the upstream catchment area, and on the amount of agricultural land in the upstream catchment. The case study analyses the incentives designed to motivate landowners to construct wetlands in Finland such as the non-productive investment support and the agri-environment payment support for wetland management. Farmers think that the support system is heavy and bureaucratic, and thus the target number of new constructed wetlands is far from being met. Individual projects have been more successful in wetland construction than the official support system. General wetland plans drafted for hotspot areas is an example of enabling factors and strict eligibility rules form one of the barriers of wetland construction identified in this case study. In spite of the criticism of the current wetland incentives, a support system for wetland construction is needed. One option would be to give regional authorities more freedom to select priority areas according to e.g. River Basin Management Plans.
Tadeusz Liziński, Anna Wróblewska and Krystyna Rauba
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Drupka S., 1976. Techniczna i rolnicza eksploatacja deszczowni. (Technical and agricultural exploitation of irrigation machines). Warszawa, PWRiL.
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Cadastre of ameliorative condition of the irrigated lands in Azerbaijan republic for 01 January 2008, 2008. Baku, Hydrogeology-Ameliorative Service of Amelioration and water Economy OTJSC: 199.
Funds of the Azerbaijan Amelioration and Water Usage OJSC.
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Volobuyev V. P
Agnieszka Kowalczyk, Leszek Łabędzki, Antoni Kuźniar and Marek Kostuch
The problem of water scarcity is unfavourable for the economy, with the most significant water deficits felt by agriculture. In Poland water deficits in agriculture are occurring more frequently, causing losses in yield, not only in the Lowland areas but also in the Uplands. This paper presents an assessment of the water deficits at various excedance probability levels for four varieties of field crop and for soil types with various water retention capacity, which occur in the Małopolska Upland. Calculations were performed by balancing the amount of available soil water in the root zone. The study was based on the meteorological data from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management for the years 1971–2010. Daily precipitation data from six rainfall stations: Borusowa, Igołomia, Książ Wielki, Miechów, Olewin and Sielec was utilised as well as average decadal air temperature, water vapour pressure, wind speed and sunshine hours from the meteorological station at Kraków–Balice. The water deficits at an excedance probability level of 20% fluctuated during the growing season from 5 mm (Phaeozems) to 190 mm (Leptosols). In the Małopolska Upland in soils with a medium capacity to retain water (110–160 mm), water deficits have occurred even in years of average rainfall (with probability 50%). This study confirms the considerable impact of the high variability of the soil and pluvial conditions in the region on the water deficits of the field crops.
Baria Satyagraha, Lily Montarcih Limantara, Mohammad Bisri and Ussy Andawayanti
Land use change in the upstream of Rawa Pening watershed which is more and more dominated by residence and industry causes the increasing of surface flow discharge on the rainy season. In addition, the decreasing of Rawa Pening ability in storing flood discharge also influences to the cropping area in surrounded Rawa Pening. Water surpluses occurring downstream are related to the land use change in the upstream which gives impact in the downstream. However, it is as an important reason to carry out the optimization of water economic value in this region. The disruption of water availability causes the decreasing of any production like hydroelectrical power, fresh water, and rice production, so the optimal water economy is decreasing. This research intends to: 1) analyse the effect of land use change to the water availability; 2) analyse the land use change to the water balance; and 3) build and analyse the optimization model of water economic value due to the land use change. Results show that there is the different influence of land use change during the years to the results of water value optimization.
The forecast of rainfall and temperature is a difficult task due to their variability in time and space and also the inability to access all the parameters influencing rainfall of a region or locality. Their forecast is of relevance to agriculture and watershed management, which significantly contribute to the economy. Rainfall prediction requires mathematical modelling and simulation because of its extremely irregular and complex nature. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was used to analyse annual rainfall and maximum temperature over Tordzie watershed and the forecast. Autocorrelation function (ACF) and partial autocorrelation function (PACF) were used to identify the models by aid of visual inspection. Stationarity tests were conducted using the augmented Dickey–Fuller (ADF), Mann–Kendall (MK) and Kwiatkowski–Phillips–Schmidt–Shin (KPSS) tests respectively. The chosen models were evaluated and validated using the Akaike information criterion corrected (AICC) and also Schwartz Bayesian criteria (SBC). The diagnostic analysis of the models comprised of the independence, normality, homoscedascity, P–P and Q–Q plots of the residuals respectively. The best ARIMA model for rainfall for Kpetoe and Tordzinu were (3, 0, 3) and (3, 1, 3) with AICC values of 190.07 and 178.23. That of maximum temperature for Kpetoe and Tordzinu were (3, 1, 3) and (3, 1, 3) and the corresponding AICC values of 23.81 and 36.10. The models efficiency was checked using sum of square error (SSE), mean square error (MSE), mean absolute percent error (MAPE) and root mean square error (RMSE) respectively. The results of the various analysis indicated that the models were adequate and can aid future water planning projections.
metodą kosztów podróży w praktyce. Wartość turystyczna Pienińskiego Parku Narodowego. W: Ekonomia a rozwój zrównoważony. T. 2. Wdrażanie. (Environmental assessment with the method of travel costs in practice. Tourist value of the Pieniny National Park. In: Economy and sustainable development. Vol. 2. Implementation). Białystok, Wydaw. Ekon. Środ.: 264-277.
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Management of water resources in rural areas: the Polish approach
The Water Framework Directive (WFD), whose basic aim was to create a legal back-ground for water bodies' protection, undoubtedly affects all economic sectors. Being a specific and distinctly different water user, agriculture will have the greatest share in the implementation of WFD out of all sectors of national economy. This results from its special character (60% of the country area used by agriculture), large volume of water consumed by evapotranspiration, diffuse pollution etc. Implementation of WFD will call for undertaking of many activities to restrict an unfavourable im-pact of agriculture on water resources and water related ecosystems. It is assumed that agriculture should also protect water resources. Accomplishment of this task imposes significant changes in the land use of river basins. Water management can be an essential factor deciding about the sustainable development of rural areas and biological diversity of agricultural landscape. Actions undertaken so far to implement the WFD are mainly limited to the protection of water quality from agricultural pol-lution. It is also necessary to undertake implementation of other aims of WFD. This refers especially to the provision of good hydromorphological status of water bodies, protection of water related eco-systems and effective water use.