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Zdena Krnáčová, Jura Jhreško, Robert Kanka and Martin Boltižiar
Krnačova Z., Hreško J., Kanka R., Boltižiar M.: The evaluation of ecological factors affecting environmental functions of the soils in area of traditional agrarian structure. Ekologia (Bratislava),Vol. 32, No. 2, p. 248-261, 2013. Cultural landscape can be seen as a result of hundred years of founding and sensitive cultivation of landscape structures respecting natural conditions. Specific geomorphological, climatic as well as social conditions enabled the conservation of original agrarian landscape structures mainly in the marginal regions of Slovakia. They are created by mosaic structures of extensively used small-scale landscape elements of permanent agricultural and arable land. An example of traditional agrarian way of using is foothill meadow-grazing landscape of the village Liptovska Teplička. By using the traditional extensive maintenance of the agricultural landscape, optimal environmental characteristics of soils were preserved. These were modified to some extent by the way of using and management. The submitted contribution is focused on the following:
• Indication of environmental characteristics of soils
• Quantification of the influence of chosen ecological factors on these environmental functions Seven research localities representing main types of the traditional landscape maintenance were chosen for needs of the research of soil and environmental conditions in a relation with the way of using the land and management. In given localities, we chose 21 sampling sites for secondary landscape structure (according to the legend of project Corine Land Cover, 2000), geological, soil, physical, biochemical and chemical conditions evaluation. Environmental functions indication was assessed in the following way: by assigning an amount of organic carbon (Cox) in a standard way (Fiala et al., 1999) for production functions, by assigning a ratio of granular fractions (pipetting method according to Novak) for retention functions. Buffering functions were evaluated potentiometrically by assigning an active soil reaction of pH (H2O) and exchange reaction of pH (KCl) in a soil. Highest values of Cox in the Ap horizon (7.67-6.62%), as well as pH of the soil environment (pH/KCl 7.26-7.21, pH/H2O 7.69-7.68) were assigned to anthrosolic and cultisolic rendzinas of extensively used grasslands. On the contrary, the lowest monitored values of organic matter Cox (2.51-2.53%), as well as pH of the soil environment (pH/KCl 4.81-5.21) (pH/ H2O 5.21-6.19) were indicated for soil subtypes anthrosols of the large fields and lithosol of theextensively used grasslands on non-carbonate substrates. Most favourable production and buffering soil properties were preserved in rendzinas on the carbonate substrates and extensively used meadows. Similarly, this type of soil on limestone used in a form of extensive meadows preserved also the most favourable retention functions according to the stated ratio of granularity fractions. Quantification of the influence of chosen ecological factors on environmental functions was performed using multivariate statistical methods, specifically principal component analysis (PCA). PCA is an indirect gradient analysis using the linear correlation of data, with a biplot as an output. Closeness of points in ordination graph represents their similarity of composition. The CANOCO (Ter Braak, Šmilauer, 2002) software was used to perform the analysis and to create the graph.
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Migration plays a fundamental part in the life of most temperate bird species. The regular, large-scale seasonal movements that characterize temperate migration systems appear to have originated in parallel with the postglacial northern expansion of tropical species. Migratoriness is also influenced by a number of ecological factors, such as the ability to survive harsh winters. Hence, understanding the origins and evolution of migration requires integration of the biogeographic history and ecology of birds in a phylogenetic context. We used molecular dating and ancestral state reconstruction to infer the origins and evolutionary changes in migratory behavior and ancestral area reconstruction to investigate historical patterns of range evolution in accipitrid birds of prey (Accipitriformes). Migration evolved multiple times in birds of prey, the earliest of which occurred in true hawks (Accipitrinae), during the middle Miocene period, according to our analyses. In most cases, a tropical ancestral distribution was inferred for the non-migratory ancestors of migratory lineages. Results from directional evolutionary tests indicate that migration evolved in the tropics and then increased the rate of colonization of temperate habitats, suggesting that temperate species might be descendants of tropical ones that dispersed into these seasonal habitats. Finally, we found that diet generalization predicts migratoriness in this group.
different microhabitats in the forest. In: Trends in Acarology (S abelis M. W., B ruin J., Eds), pp. 213–216, Springer Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
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) based on nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome b-gene. - Journal of Ornithology 144: 176-185.
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Irimia L., C.V. Patriche, 2010 - Evaluating the oenoclimatic potential in wine growing regions, by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Cercetări Agronomice în Moldova, Vol. 1 (141), Ia ş i, pp. 49 - 58.
Irimia L. , C.V. Patriche C.V., 2009 - Spatial distribution analysis of the ecologicalfactors in the Avereşti wine growing centre -Huşi vineyard. Cercetări Agronomice în Moldova, Vol. 3 (139), Iași, pp. 33 - 42.
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Ecological Characteristic of Calanoids (Copepoda, Calanoida) of the Inland Waters of Ukraine
The article presents analyze of known published data and own observations on ecology of freshwater and brackish calanoid copepods of fauna of Ukraine. The briefly characteristic of main types of waterbodies inhabited by calanoids is given. The relation of species to the important ecological factors of water environment like temperature, habitat permanence, salinity, pH, current, suspended matters, and interaction with other hydrobionts is analyzed.