Ales Rudl, Ivo Machar, Lubos Uradnicek, Ludek Praus and Vilem Pechanec
, 417: 1–17.
Zackrisson O., Ostlund L., Korhonen O., Bergman I. 2000. The ancient use of Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) inner bark by Sami people in northern Sweden, related to cultural and ecologicalfactors. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany , 9, 2: 99–109.
Myroslava Petrovska, Viktoriya Pantyley, Iryna Strilets and Svyatoslav Petrovskyi
With the current economic and political instability in Ukraine, children's health is most certainly the best indicator of socioeconomic development within the country and its different regions. This article analyses the socio-economic and environmental determinants of a child’s health in a big city (using the example of Lviv, a city in Ukraine). The demographic indicators of the child population of the city of Lviv and the reasons for mortality were traced; the structure of children’s diseases was analyzed; the factors affecting children’s health potential (such as local budget expenditures on health care, the level of average nominal wages, the ecological situation in the region) were studied. Published and non-published statistical data from the Main Statistical Department of Lviv Region, Lviv City Council were used. Specific consumer behavior among randomly selected Lviv households with children aged between 0-14 years was studied by using a special survey. Research results show the links between socio-economic and ecological factors (local budget expenditures on health care, the level of average nominal wages, the ecological indices in the region), and child mortality. The limited capacity of parents to satisfy the basic needs of households and complete lack, or limitation, of time that parents spend with their children undoubtedly influences the potential of children’s health in a destructive way.
Ion Constantin, Baltag Emanuel Ştefan, Ursu Adrian, Sfîcă Lucian, Ignat Alina Elena and Stoleriu Cristian Constantin
The avian habitats in Eastern Europe are poorly managed in last decades. It is of highly noteworthy influence importance to obtain more information regarding the link between birds’ presence and environmental features in wetlands to improve this poorly managed system. In our study we investigated the effects of the various habitat, landscape fragmentation and weather variables on the bird assemblages in Eastern Romania, described by diversity, species richness and abundance of non-passerine birds in wetlands. Poisson regression modelling revealed wetland area, wetland heterogeneity, proportion of open-water, density of patches and habitats, landscape shape and temperature conditions have a noteworthy influence on the bird assemblages (p<0,05). Our results suggest that the link between environmental features and birds’ assemblage, in our study areas could be dependent on the presence of the emergent vegetation (shelter / reproduction zones), the balance between open-water area (feeding / nesting zones) and also other variables, as the temperature, the presence of the human living facilities and/or intensive fish nurseries in the neighboring zones. Waterbird distribution and abundance in eastern part of Romania are driven by similar factors to other part of the world and this study could be one of the first published on the topic in a region where It is a lack of information on waterbirds ecology. Such studies would bring valuable information about the ecologic factors influencing the lives of the birds, in the areas that were not stueid before, resulting in better conservation efforts and wetland protection, in estern part of Europe.
The system of Maasai-pastoralism, practiced in the savanna rangelands of Kenya, epitomizes an ideal learning platform upon which the dynamics of factors and/or processes that shape sustainability and drought resilience in a coupled socio-ecological system can be unravelled. This study engaged an integrated approach to examine the dynamics of drought-adaptation strategies utilized in Maasai-pastoralism, a strongly coupled socio-ecological system. The current empirical evidence reveals the integrative utilization of varied and multipurpose adaptation strategies. Migrate-livestock, diversify-livelihood, and diversify-livestock, in that order, dominate as the most widely utilized drought-adaptations in Maasai-pastoralism. In this system, drought-adaptation strategies that take advantage of drought conditions are rare. In addition, over 50% of the Maasais’ households frequently use an admixture of over half of the existing strategies. The study reveals that drought-adaptation strategies in Maasai-pastoralism are inextricably interconnected systematic endeavours that simultaneously help alleviate deleterious drought-impacts and livelihood-risks, manage resilience, ensure sustainability of the core socioeconomic sector and of critical rangeland resources, and deal with cross-scale social and biophysical happenings and conditions within which this system is entrenched. As drought recurrences intensify, and shifts in social, political, economic, ecological factors and processes persist, the Maasai’s adaptation strategies and livelihood subsistence, as well as pathways of development, will be transformed in ways that we are yet to understand. Therefore, efforts toward enhancing drought-adaptations and the Maasai’s livelihoods should be based on a holistic understanding of the social-biophysical landscapes within which this system is entrenched. In policy terms, such efforts should be participatory and be mainstreamed within policies and/or programs related to, and/or operating in, Maasai-inhabited regions.