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Methodical Approach to Determine the Influence of Economic Activity in the Region on the State of the Territorial Environment of the Territory

Abstract

The goal of this research work is the formation of methodological approach of ecological factor assessment impact on the development level of territorial economic systems. This article presents the quality indicators of the development of socio-economic areas, which reflect total level and the extent of human impact on the natural environment characterizing the level of economy influence (economic activities) on the environment. This article suggests the approach to the calculation of Eco-intensity indicator and general air pollution dynamics in Ukraine, regarding regions, type of economic activities/industries. The research studies the comparative evaluation and the characteristics of the ecological status of the territories. It was determined that for the period from 2005 till 2012 the emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere from stationary and mobile pollution sources are being gradually reduced due to the decreasing level of production enterprises, which were the main polluters of the atmosphere. According to the types of economic activity, the measurements of Eco-intensity emissions of pollutants and carbon dioxide indicated that the biggest indices were in energy distribution, mining and processing industries.

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Analysis of trichome morphology and density in Salvia nemorosa L. (Lamiaceae) of Iran

Abstract

Salvia nemorosa L. is an aromatic herb distributed widely in various regions of Iran, and is used in traditional and modern medicine. In the present study, leaf trichome densities and also type were investigated in six populations of the species, because the effective substances of this species exist in essential oil of glandular trichomes. For this, the mature intact leaves of each population were fixed in FAA solution, and then transverse hand sections were double-stained and studied using light microscopy. Leaf indumentum in all of the populations was dense pilose, with the exception of Tehran population that had loose pilose. Thirteen kinds of trichomes were identified, the main of which were peltate and capitate. PCA-biplot showed that each of these populations had prominent trichome trait(s). Furthermore, significant positive/negative correlations were found between some trichome types with main ecological factors of habitat. The studied populations clustered separately in the UPGMA tree, moreover, PCA and also PCO plots produced similar results. Our findings confirmed that ecological parameters of a habitat have strong effects on trichome morphology and density.

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Wind – an important ecological factor and destructive agent in forests

, R. P., Ayres, M. P., Flannigan, M. D., Hanson, P. J. et al., 2001: Climate change and forest disturbances. BioScience, 51:723–734. Ennos, A.R., 1997: Wind as an ecological factor. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 12: 108-111. Gardiner, B. A., Schelhaas, M. J., Blennow, K., Orazio, Ch., Landmann, G.: Wind storms and forest losses. A brief history of the wind damage to European forests. European Forest Institute, Forest Research. Avaiable at: www.forestreserach.gov.uk ; www.efi.int . Gardiner, B. A., 1995: The interaction of wind and tree

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Ecological Factors of Transmission, Persistence and Circulation of Pathogens In Bat Populations

Abstract

The existence of bats is crucial for all ecosystem units as they fulfil numerous ecological roles. However, they are also considered to be natural reservoirs of a wide range of zoonotic microorganisms, especially viruses. In this review article we briefly summarize current knowledge about various ecological factors that facilitate bat pathogen dispersal and about the current approaches to monitoring viral communities present within bat populations. On the basis of the cited papers, we suggest that the increased focus on complex viral populations in bats and their interactions with other populations and the environment is necessary to fully comprehend the relationship between emerging infectious diseases, the environment and their toll on human health.

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THE EVALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL FACTOR S AFFECTING ENVIRONMENTAL FUNCTION S OF THE SOIL S IN AREA OF TRADITIONAL AGRARIAN STRUCTURE S

Abstract

Krnačova Z., Hreško J., Kanka R., Boltižiar M.: The evaluation of ecological factors affecting environmental functions of the soils in area of traditional agrarian structure. Ekologia (Bratislava),Vol. 32, No. 2, p. 248-261, 2013. Cultural landscape can be seen as a result of hundred years of founding and sensitive cultivation of landscape structures respecting natural conditions. Specific geomorphological, climatic as well as social conditions enabled the conservation of original agrarian landscape structures mainly in the marginal regions of Slovakia. They are created by mosaic structures of extensively used small-scale landscape elements of permanent agricultural and arable land. An example of traditional agrarian way of using is foothill meadow-grazing landscape of the village Liptovska Teplička. By using the traditional extensive maintenance of the agricultural landscape, optimal environmental characteristics of soils were preserved. These were modified to some extent by the way of using and management. The submitted contribution is focused on the following:

• Indication of environmental characteristics of soils

• Quantification of the influence of chosen ecological factors on these environmental functions Seven research localities representing main types of the traditional landscape maintenance were chosen for needs of the research of soil and environmental conditions in a relation with the way of using the land and management. In given localities, we chose 21 sampling sites for secondary landscape structure (according to the legend of project Corine Land Cover, 2000), geological, soil, physical, biochemical and chemical conditions evaluation. Environmental functions indication was assessed in the following way: by assigning an amount of organic carbon (Cox) in a standard way (Fiala et al., 1999) for production functions, by assigning a ratio of granular fractions (pipetting method according to Novak) for retention functions. Buffering functions were evaluated potentiometrically by assigning an active soil reaction of pH (H2O) and exchange reaction of pH (KCl) in a soil. Highest values of Cox in the Ap horizon (7.67-6.62%), as well as pH of the soil environment (pH/KCl 7.26-7.21, pH/H2O 7.69-7.68) were assigned to anthrosolic and cultisolic rendzinas of extensively used grasslands. On the contrary, the lowest monitored values of organic matter Cox (2.51-2.53%), as well as pH of the soil environment (pH/KCl 4.81-5.21) (pH/ H2O 5.21-6.19) were indicated for soil subtypes anthrosols of the large fields and lithosol of theextensively used grasslands on non-carbonate substrates. Most favourable production and buffering soil properties were preserved in rendzinas on the carbonate substrates and extensively used meadows. Similarly, this type of soil on limestone used in a form of extensive meadows preserved also the most favourable retention functions according to the stated ratio of granularity fractions. Quantification of the influence of chosen ecological factors on environmental functions was performed using multivariate statistical methods, specifically principal component analysis (PCA). PCA is an indirect gradient analysis using the linear correlation of data, with a biplot as an output. Closeness of points in ordination graph represents their similarity of composition. The CANOCO (Ter Braak, Šmilauer, 2002) software was used to perform the analysis and to create the graph.

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A Pasture Of Big Ungulate Animals As Key Ecological Factor Influencing On The Fluctuation Of Natural Habitat Of Steppe Herbivorous Mammals

., Abelentsev, V. I., Semikhatova, S. N. Marmot (Baibak) // Woodchucks, distribution and ecology. — Moscow : Nauka, 1978. — Р. 10–38. — Russian : Шубин И. Г., Абеленцев В. И., Семихатова С. Н. Байбак. Sviridenko, P. A. Rodents // The Nature of Rostovsky Region. — Rostov-on-Don, 1940. — Р. 281–290. — Russia : Свириденко П. А. Грызуны. Tokarsky, V. A., Ronkin, V. I., Savchenko, G. A. Key ecological factors of renaissance of European subspecies of the steppe marmot in the middle of XX century and depression of its number in the beginning of XXI century

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Assessment of Mountain Ecosystems Changes Under Anthropogenic Pressure in Latorica River Basin (Transcarpathian Region, Ukraine)

). Dominant species identity regulates invasibility of old-field plant communities. Oikos, 115, 549-558. DOI: 10.1111/j.2006.0030-1299.15172.x. Godefroid, S., Phartyal, S.S., Weyembergh, G. & Koedam N. (2005). Ecological factors controlling the abundance of non-native invasive black cherry (Prunus serotina) in deciduous forest understory in Belgium. For. Ecol. Manag, 210, 91-105. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2005.02.024. Herenchuk, K. (1981). Nature of Zakarpatska Oblast (Transcarpathia). Lviv: Vyshcha Shkola Publishing House. Honnay O., Jacquemyn, H., Bossuyt, B

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Gis applications in viticulture: the spatial distribution analysis of slope inclination and slope exposure in Huşi vine growing centre – Huşi vineyard

References Irimia L., C.V. Patriche, 2010 - Evaluating the oenoclimatic potential in wine growing regions, by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Cercetări Agronomice în Moldova, Vol. 1 (141), Ia ş i, pp. 49 - 58. Irimia L. , C.V. Patriche C.V., 2009 - Spatial distribution analysis of the ecological factors in the Avereşti wine growing centre -Huşi vineyard. Cercetări Agronomice în Moldova, Vol. 3 (139), Iași, pp. 33 - 42. Irimia L., Liliana Rotaru, 2009 - Preliminary research regarding

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The role of edaphic, vegetational and spatial factors in structuring soil animal communities in a floodplain forest of the Dnipro river

., L egendre , P., D rapeau , P., 1992. Partialling out the spatial component of ecological variation. Ecology , 73: 1045–1055. B rygadyrenko , V.V., 2015. Evaluation of the ecological niche of some abundant species of the subfamily Platyninae (Coleoptera, Carabidae) against the background of eight ecological factors. Folia Oecologica , 42: 75–88 B rygadyrenko , V.V., 2016. Effect of canopy density on litter invertebrate community structure in pine forests. Ekológia (Bratislava) , 35 (1): 90–102. B uzuk , G.N., 2017. Fitoindikaciya s primeneniem

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Antropogenically Created Forest Edge in the Starohorské Vrchy Mts. on the Example of Donovaly Village

Antropogenically Created Forest Edge in the Starohorské Vrchy Mts. on the Example of Donovaly Village

Forest edges represent specific elements forming the character of landscape. They are very important factors in ecological stability. To know and to understand them as a part of dynamic and hierarchic structure in vertical and horizontal shaping of the landscape contributes to understanding of the processes between forest and non-forested landscape in connection to influence of ecological factors towards broad knowledge of the country in the shape of its utilization and monitoring of its dynamic changes. The aim of the paper is to analyze in a geographic sense the types of anthropic forest edges in the area of Starohorské vrchy Mts. (on the example of Donovaly village) and their partial geographic synthesis in the frame of chosen attributes and forest edge functions. Basic question is whether human activity influences the dynamics of environmental variables, its structure, taxonomic diversity and other attributes of forest edges.

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