For the past several decades, the mainstream scientific opinion on healthy diets and the recommendations for dietary intake have favored high-carbohydrate and low-fat (HCLF) diets. This position has led most countries in the world to issue dietary guidelines in favor of lowering dietary fat and increasing starch and fiber intake ( Myers et al., 2013 ). These guidelines have largely been followed as dietary carbohydrate content has gradually increased at the expense of fat ( Johnston et al., 2014 ). Despite the scientific and dietary progress in
Antonio Paoli, Pasqualina Cancellara, Pierluigi Pompei and Tatiana Moro
balance’s factors stimulates protein synthesis, on the opposite an increase in negative protein balance’s factors stimulates protein degradation. The sum of these two parts of the scale defines the net protein balance (NPB).
Considering the paramount importance of protein intake as a skeletal muscle protein synthesis stimulus, it is somewhat surprising that a relatively high protein diet such as the very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet, more simply called ketogenic diet (KD) ( Paoli, 2018 ), has been, till now, poorly investigated as far as its effects on skeletal
Victoria Ancuța Rus, Florina Ruța, Maria Sălcudean, Monica Tarcea, Costela Șerban, Călin Avram, Iustinian Simion and Theodora Benedek
European Region. Available at: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/185903/e96816.pdf .
4. World Health Organization. Global Health Observatory (GHO) data: Raised blood pressure. Available at: http://www.who.int/gho/ncd/risk_factors/blood_pressure_prevalence_text/en .
5. Blumenthal JA, Babyak, MA, Hinderliter, A et al. Effects of the DASH diet alone and in combination with exercise and weight loss on blood pressure and cardiovascular biomarkers in men and women with high blood pressure: the ENCORE study. Arch Intern Med . 2010
Dominika Maciejewska, Małgorzata Michalczyk, Maja Czerwińska-Rogowska, Marcin Banaszczak, Karina Ryterska, Karolina Jakubczyk, Jakub Piotrwski, Joanna Hołowko, Arleta Drozd, Paweł Wysokińki, Krzysztof Ficek, Krzysztof Wilk, Anna Lubkowska, Paweł Cięszczyk, Jerzy Bertrand and Ewa Stachowska
maintaining normal body mass and may lead to obesity, diabetes and many other diseases. A study conducted on a group of 100 former soccer players from Brazil showed that 78% of them were overweight and 4% suffered from obesity ( Arliani et al., 2014 ).
The generally recommended diet associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and obesity is the Mediterranean diet (MD) ( Assmann et al., 1997 ). It has been shown that this type of diet can be recommended to all populations worldwide ( Kouris-Blazos et al., 1999 ). The beneficial effect of the MD is
Oana-Cristina Cînpeanu, Monica Tarcea, Paul Cojan, Daniel Iorga, Peter Olah and Raquel P.F. Guiné
1. Mozaffarian D. Dietary and Policy Priorities for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity – a comprehensive review. Circulation . 2016;133:187-225.
2. World Health Organization. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Report of joint WHO/FAO expert consultation. WHO Technical Report Series, No 916. https://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/publications/trs916/intro . (14 February 2019)
3. Stephenson J, Heslehurst N, Hall J, et al. Before the beginning: nutrition and lifestyle in the preconception period and
José Saavedra, Antonio Garcia-Hermoso and Yolanda Escalante
Barlow SE, Expert Committee. Expert committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report. Pediatrics, 2007; 120(Suppl. 1): 164-192.
Ben Ounis O, Elloumi M, Ben Chiekh I, Zbidi A, Amri M, Lac G, Tabka Z. Effects of two-month physical-endurance and diet-restriction programmes on lipid profiles and insulin resistance in obese adolescent boys. Diabetes Metab, 2008; 34(6 Pt 1): 595
Amanda Casey, Colin Boyd, Sasho MacKenzie and Roy Rasmussen
status and dietary patterns in disabled people. Nutr Metab Cardio Dis, 2006; 16: 100.-112.
Croce RV. Effects of Exercise and Diet on Body Composition and Cardiovascular Fitness in Adults with Severe Mental Retardation. Educ Train Ment Retard , 1990; 25: 176-187.
Casey AF, Rasmussen R, MacKenzie S, Glenn J. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure the influence of a sixteen-week community-based swim training program on body fat in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities. Arch Phys Med Rehab
Małgorzata Michalczyk, Adam Zajac, Kazimierz Mikolajec, Grzegorz Zydek and Józef Langfort
For years, athletes have been searching for a diet that would enhance performance while reducing body fat and the risk of other disorders ( Creighton et al., 2018 ; Greene et al., 2018 ; Maciejewska et al., 2017 ; McSwiney et al., 2017; Zajac et al., 2014 ). Till now athletes most often experiment with the low fat diets (LFD), low carbohydrate diets (LCD), and high protein diets (HPD) ( Creighton et al., 2018 ; Greene et al., 2018 ; McSwiney et al., 2018 ; Paoli et al., 2013 ; Zajac et al., 2014 ). However particular sport disciplines are
of 14.87. This was suggestive of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency (PDCD) ( Table 1 ). A skeletal muscle biopsy showed low levels of activated PDC and PDC/E3 ratio ( Table 1 ) as well as a pyruvate dehydrogenase and mitochondrial complex panel testing positive for pyruvate dehydrogenase alpha 1 (PDHA1) gene mutation confirming the diagnosis of PDCD.
The patient was given a trial of a ketogenic diet (KD) which did not result in an elevation of lactate levels ( Figure 2 ). He remained on prolonged mechanical ventilation secondary to the development of acute
1. World Health Organization. Global Health Estimates 2016: Deaths by Cause, Age, Sex, by Country and by Region, 2000–2016. Geneva: WHO, 2016. https://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GHE2016_Deaths_WBInc_2000_2016.xls?ua=1
2. World Health Organization. Noncommunicable diseases country profiles 2018. Geneva: WHO, 2018. https://www.who.int/nmh/publications/ncd-profiles-2018/en/
3. World Health Organization. Diet, nutrition and prevention of chronic diseases. Report of a Joint Expert Consultation. Geneva: WHO/FAO, 2003