Valéria do Valle, Danielli de Mello, Marcos de Sá Fortes and Estélio Dantas
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Anthony C. Hackney, Ashley L. Kallman and Eser Ağgön
Study aim: Evidence supports female sex hormones have an influencing effect on amultitude of physiological and psychological systems related to exercise. Little is known, however, whether is effect persist into the recovery from exercise. Our objective was to examine aspects of muscle damage/inflammation process during recovery in healthy, exercise-trained women following endurance activity at the mid-follicular (MF; low sex hormone level) and mid-luteal (ML; elevated sex hormone levels) phases of their menstrual cycle.
Material and methods: The MF and ML exercise sessions consisted of running for 90 minutes at 70% VO2max on atreadmill in a controlled laboratory environment. Menstrual cycle phase was hormonally confirmed, diet and physical activity was control throughout the study. Outcome measures were: blood creatine kinase (CK) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) assessed at immediate-post exercise (IP), 24-hour and 72-hour into recovery. Statistics involved ANOVA procedures.
Results: At 24-hours and 72-hour into recovery CK activity was greater in MF than ML (p < 0.05) while for IL-6 at IP, 24-hour and 72-hour responses were significantly greater at MF than at ML (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: Amore robust recovery CK and IL-6 response occur in the MF of the menstrual cycle when female sex hormones are reduced. This finding suggests female sex hormone changes due to menstrual cycle phase affect the physiologic responses during the extended recovery period from intensive exercise in eumenorrheic women.
Lucas de Lucena de Simões, Eline Autran de Lima, Gabriela Carvalho Jurema Santos, Tafnes Oliveira, Elenilson Maximino Bernardo, Luana Olegário, Erika Rabelo Fortes Siqueira and Matheus Santos de Sousa Fernandes
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Edyta Suliga, Iwona Wronka and Romana Pawlińska-Chmara
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Marzena Malara, Joanna Tkaczyk, Anna Kęska, Grażyna Lutosławska and Krzysztof Mazurek
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Marzena Malara, Anna Kęska and Grażyna Lutosławska
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Effects of two-month walking exercise on bone mass density in young, thin women
Study aim: To examine the effects of a walking programme on the bone mass density (BMD) in sedentary, thin women aimed at preventing bone losses.
Material and methods: Twenty thin (BMI<20) women aged 22.0 ± 1.5 years volunteered to participate in the study. They were randomly assigned into the exercise (n = 10) or control (n = 10) groups, those from the experimental group being submitted to a training programme lasting two months. The programme consisted of 3 walking sessions per week, 30 min each, at 50 - 75% of maximal heart rate. Anthropometric measurements, bone mass density (by DXA) at the hip and lumbar spine (L2 - L4) and oestradiol concentration in serum (by radioimmunoassay kits) in the follicular phase were made before and after the training programme. The same diet was maintained throughout the study and was monitored by 7-day recalls.
Results: The walking programme induced significant increases in BMD (by 5.2% in the hip site, p<0.001, and by 7.3% in the spine, p<0.05). Significant decreases were found in calcium concentration in both groups (by about 5%) and in phosphorus concentration in the experimental group (by about 16%). In the experimental group also the relative body fat content significantly decreased (by 7.7%).
Conclusion: Walking exercise practiced for two months reduced the risk of bone loss by significantly increasing bone density.
Władysław Jagiełło, Marek Kruszewski and Jakub Banach
Effects of creatine supplementation on body mass and muscle girths in bodybuilders
Study aim: To find out whether a 6-week creatine supplementation would significantly augment body mass and muscle circumferences in male bodybuilders.
Material and methods: A group of 14 male bodybuilders aged 16 - 29 years were randomly divided into two groups: experimental (E) and control (C), 7 subjects each. Group E received creatine monohydrate, Group C - placebo, 10 g daily for 6 weeks without saturation phase. The experimental design was a double-blind one. All subjects were on strictly controlled diet, the daily intakes amounting to 2.3 - 2.8 g of protein, 1.0 - 1.2 g of fat and 5 - 6 g/kg body mass of carbohydrate, and 3200 - 4000 kcal. All subjects trained 3 days a week, each session lasting 120 min, in the ‘Power, Rep-Range, Shock’ mode. Chest, waist, arm, forearm, thigh and calf girths were measured in the relaxed and contracted states, together with body mass, before and after the study.
Results: Significant, training-induced changes were noted in almost all body circumferences studied in both groups and muscle states, those in the chest, biceps and thigh girths being the most pronounced ones and significantly (p<0.05) greater in the experimental than in control group in the contracted muscle state. In the relaxed state the between-group differences were significant for the chest and thigh girths. The increments in body mass were significantly (p<0.01) higher in the experimental than in control group (4.3 ± 1.3 and 2.1 ± 0.7 kg, respectively).
Conclusions: The observed changes may have been brought about by creatine administration.