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Nutritional assessment of omega-3 fatty acids intake in schizophrenia patients group

Abstract

Introduction: Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disease which significantly affects functioning and quality of life of patients. Lifestyle, including irregular eating habits, is a factor possibly intensifying symptoms of the disease and unwanted effects of pharmacotherapy. Due to positive effect on metabolic parameters demonstrated in numerous studies and participation in structure and functioning of central nervous system, omega-3 essential unsaturated fatty acids (EFAs) are the suggested form of schizophrenia cotheraphy.

Aim: The purpose of this paper was to evaluate EFAs (especially omega-3 family) consumption by individuals with schizophrenia and comparing contents of these acids in the diets of female and male patients.

Method: A study was conducted with the participation of 32 patients, recruited in the Psychiatric Outpatient Department of the Independent Public Clinical Hospital No. 1 in Lublin, with diagnosed schizophrenia. Data concerning the intake of EFAs was acquired in the course of 24-hour diet recall.

Results: Average intake of omega-3 EFAs in the examined population was 2.40 ± 2.85 g, of which only 201.6 ± 501.5 mg was constituted by EPA and DHA acids. The intake of omega-3 EFAs did not differ between men and women groups (p>0.05). Food rations of the 91% responders were characterised with the intake of EPA and DHA acids below the adequate intake level (AI).

Conclusions: Patients suffering from schizophrenia consume insufficient amounts of EPA and DHA acids. Evidence suggests that optimum intake of omega-3 EFAs could bring significant benefits for this group of patients. People suffering from schizophrenia should be attended with the care of a dietician, who will choose optimum strategy for supplying sufficient amount of nutrients in the diet.

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Review paper. Gluten-related disorders and schizophrenia - potential linking mechanisms, diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

al. Diagnosis of Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS): The Salerno Experts' Criteria. Nutrients. 2015;7(6):4966-77. 28. Cooper BT., Holmes GK., Ferguson R., Thompson RA., Allan RN., Cooke WT. Gluten-sensitive diarrhea without evidence of celiac disease. Gastroenterology. 1980; 79: 801-806 29. Digiacomo, D.V., Tennyson, C.A., Green, P.H., & Demmer, R.T. Prevalence of gluten-free diet adherence among individuals without celiac disease in the USA: Results from the continuous national health and nutrition examination survey 2009

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Omega – 3 fatty acids in schizophrenia – part I: importance in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia

., Ibarra Jato M., Barroso García A., González Tejón S., Tajada Vitales C., Díaz Mújica B., Viñas Cabrera L., Sanchís Catalán R., Salvador Barbarroja T. The effectiveness of a program of physical activity and diet to modify cardiovascular risk factors in patients with severe mental illness after 3-month follow-up: CAPiCOR randomized clinical trial. Eur Psychiatry. 2015; 30(8): 1028-36. 7. Kraeuter A.K., Loxton H., Lima B.C., Rudd D., Sarnyai Z. Ketogenic diet reverses behavioral abnormalities in an acute NMDA receptor hypofunction model of schizophrenia. Schizophr

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Obstetric complications in women with schizophrenia

Summary

Pregnancy, childbirth and motherhood are new situations for women and require adjustment. Women suffering from schizophrenia require special attention due to the course of the disease. Physiological changes that occur in the body during pregnancy may be unacceptable for women suffering from schizophrenia. They may delusively deny the existence of the pregnancy, lead an unhealthy lifestyle (stimulants, poor diet, lack of gynaecological check-ups), which in turn causes an increased risk of complications. In the research conducted so far, it has been proven that three kinds of complications are associated with schizophrenia: complications concerning pregnancy itself (bleeding, diabetes, Rh-incompatibility, pre-eclampsia), intrauterine growth restriction (low birth weight, congenital malformations, small head circumference) and complications regarding labour (uterine atony, asphyxia, emergency Caesarean section). The course of the labour itself in this specific group of patients has not yet been sufficiently examined. It has also been proven that perinatal complications are one of the factors determining an increased risk of schizophrenia.

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Silent angels the genetic and clinical aspects of Rett syndrome

Abstract

Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder and, because of some behavioral characteristics, individuals affected by the disease are known as silent angels. Girls with Rett syndrome perform stereotyped movements, they have learning difficulties, their reaction time is prolonged, and they seem alienated in the environment. These children require constant pediatric, neurological and orthopedic care. In the treatment of Rett syndrome physical therapy, music therapy, hydrotherapy, hippotherapy, behavioral methods, speech therapy and diet, are also used. In turn, psychological therapy of the syndrome is based on the sensory integration method, using two or more senses simultaneously. In 80% of cases, the syndrome is related to mutations of the MECP2 gene, located on chromosome X. The pathogenesis of Rett syndrome is caused by the occurrence of a non-functional MeCP2 protein, which is a transcription factor of many genes, i.e. Bdnf, mef2c, Sgk1, Uqcrc1. Abnormal expression of these genes reveals a characteristic disease phenotype. Clinical symptoms relate mainly to the nervous, respiratory, skeletal and gastrointestinal systems. Currently causal treatment is not possible. However, researchers are developing methods by which, perhaps in the near future, it will be possible to eliminate the mutations in the MECP2 gene, and this will give a chance to the patient for normal functioning.

The paper presents the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease, genetic, clinical, pharmacological aspects and other forms of Rett syndrome treatment.

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Oral health in female patients with eating disorders

, Crisp AH. Teeth, vomiting and diet: study of the dental characteristics of seventeen anorexia nervosa patients. Postgrad Med J 1977; 53: 298-305. Hurst PS Lacey JH Crisp AH. Teeth, vomiting and diet: study of the dental characteristics of seventeen anorexia nervosa patients Postgrad Med J 1977 53 298 305 4. Rusyan E, Słowińska SM, Dubielecka M, Jakubczyk A. Stan zdrowia jamy ustnej pacjentów z anoreksją. Mag Stom 2005; 166: 32-34. Rusyan E Słowińska SM Dubielecka M Jakubczyk A Stan zdrowia jamy ustnej pacjentów z

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An overlooked issue: sexual dysfunctions in men addicted to alcohol

Alcohol and Opioid Dependence. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine 2014; 36:355-365. 9. Lue TF. Erectile dysfunction. N Engl J Med 2000; 342:1802-1813. 10. Prieto D. Physiological regulation of penile arteries and veins. Int J Impot Res 2008; 20:17-29. 11. Cicero TJ. Alcohol-induced deficits in the hypothalamic-pituitary-leteinizing hormone axis in the male. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1982; 6:207-215. 12. Salonen I, Pakarinen P, Huhtaniemi I. Effect of chronic ethanol diet on expression of gonadotropin genes in the male rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther

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