Berglund, G., Elmstahl, S., Janzon, L, Larsson, S.A. (1993). The Malmo Diet and Cancer Study: Design and feasibility. J. Intern. Med., 233, 45-51.
Brennan, S.F., Cantwell, M.M., Cardwell, C.R., Valentzis, L.S., Woodside, J.V. (2010). Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 91(5), 1294-1302.
Ericson, U., Ivarsson, M. Sonestedt, E., Gullberg, B., Carlson, J., Olsson, H., Wirfalt, E. (2009a). Increased breast cancer risk at high plasma
Scientific studies have regularly confirmed that nowadays the salt consumption through food is too much, and its consumption has to be reduced. The aim of the study was to ascertain the amount of salt consumed per day by 18–35 year-old Latvians as well as to identify the main sources of salt in their diets. The following research methods were used in the study: questionnaire based on an example recommended by the World Health Organisation, sociological research method, bread baking tests, and logically constructive, and statistical research methods. The results of this research showed that the average intake of salt in the diet of 18–35 year-old Latvians was 7.1 g per day. Of all the respondents, 63% consumed more than the recommended 5 g of salt per day, and none of them consumed less than necessary to meet their physiological needs. The results showed that women consumed less salt than men — approximately 6 g per day, while men consumed 8.2 g of salt per day. The main sources of salt in the diet of 18–35 year old Latvians were cereals and cereal products, as well as meat and meat products. Among cereal products, the key source of salt was represented by bread and pastry.
Design of security protocols is notoriously error-prone. For this reason, it is required to use formal methods to analyze their security properties. In the paper we present a formal analysis of the Canvas protocol. The Canvas protocol was developed by Harald Vogt and should provide data integrity inWireless Sensor Networks. However, Dieter Gollmann published an attack on the protocol. We consider the fallacy of the Canvas scheme in different models of the attacker and present a solution for correcting the scheme.We propose a formal model of the fixed Canvas protocol in the applied pi-calculus. This model includes a model of the network topology, communication channels, captured nodes, and capabilities of the attacker. Moreover, we formulate and analyze the data integrity property of the scheme in the semantic model of the applied pi-calculus. We prove that the fixed Canvas scheme, in the presence of an active adversary, provides data integrity of messages assuming that captured nodes are not direct neighbors in the communication graph of a sensor network. Finally, we discuss the applicability of the proposed formal model for analysis of other WSN security protocols.
Amari, A., Dahlquist, L., Kossoff, E. H., Vining, E. P. G., Trescher, W. H., Slifer, K. J. (2007). Children with seizures exhibit preferences for foods compatible with the ketogenic diet. Epilepsy Behav., 11 , 98-104.
Asadi Pooya, A. A., Ghafari, A. (2004). Do patients with epilepsy think they need specific dietary restrictions? Epilepsy Behav., 5 , 945-948.
Asadi-Pooya, A. A., Hossein-Zade, A. (2005). What do nurses and physicians think about the need for specific dietary restrictions in
Rudīte Lagzdiņa, Leons Blumfelds, Maija Rumaka and Līga Aberberga-Augškalne
Anonymous (2000). Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic . Report of aWHOConsultation.WHOTechnical Report Series 894. Geneva. 253 pp.
Anonymous (2003). Diet, nutrition and prevention of chronic diseases . Report of a joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series 916. Geneva. 149 pp.
Blumfelds, L., Rumaka, M., Lagzdina, R., Aberberga-Augskalne, L. (2011). Ar svaru saistîtâs íermeòa uzbûves paðnovçrtçjuma precizitâte studentiem [Accuracy of self-estimated body
The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) states that it is essential for people to understand what constitutes a healthy diet and to know how to use their resources in the most effective way. Iodine is an essential nutrient for mammals, required as a mandatory structural and functional element of thyroid hormones. Previous studies in Latvia highlighted a tendency of reduced level of iodine for newborns, school-age children and pregnant women. No studies in the general adult population had been conducted yet. The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of knowledge regarding the role of iodine in nutrition in the adult population of Latvia. In total 199 adults participated in the survey. Data on the knowledge about the occurrence of iodine in nature and foodstuffs, the role of iodine in nutrition, and its deficiency were obtained. Results of the survey showed that only 4.5% of respondents used iodised salt daily in the diet. One-fourth knew that iodine is widely found in the environment and more than one-third knew all of the main functions of iodine in the human body. Salt and sea food were mentioned as the most common iodine sources. While iodised salt is used rarely, public awareness about the role of iodine is good and potential iodine deficiency in Latvia is likely due to unbalanced diet rather than lack of knowledge.
The effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress, cadmium accumulation in organs, immune system activity and kidney function in chickens were investigated. The treatment groups of chickens were fed either plain diet or diet supplemented with ascorbic acid at 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg for four weeks. Liver and kidney tissues were assayed for cadmium concentration, and the hepatic levels of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA; the oxidised form), malondialdehyde, glutathione, activity of glutathione peroxidase, blood serum uric acid, creatinine, lysozyme and circulating immune complexes were measured. Supplementation with a high dose of ascorbic acid (1000 and 2000 mg/kg in the diet) caused an imbalance between pro-oxidative and antioxidative activities, and induced a suppressive effect on innate immunity. The results suggest that oxidative stress compromises renal function. We observed that ascorbic acid increased cadmium accumulation in a dose-dependent manner.
Svetlana Vasiļjeva, Nadežda Bērziņa and Inesa Remeza
Dietary modulation of immune responses by ascorbic acid in healthy and cadmium-induced immunocompromised chickens
The assessment of immunological changes induced in chickens by feeding 50 mg cadmium per 1 kg of diet from hatching to 30 days of age was studied. Furthermore, the modulatory effects of different supplemental doses of ascorbic acid (100 and 1000 mg per 1 kg of diet) were investigated. The observed immunocompromise in chickens continuously exposed to cadmium resulted in a decreased growth rate and disturbance of immune responses, both on nonspecific and specific levels. The effect of supplements 100 and 1000 mg of ascorbic acid per 1 kg of diet differed. The low dosage of ascorbic acid had immunostimulative action in healthy cadmium-untreated chickens, provided correction of compromised immunity, and increased tolerance of the birds to subtoxic cadmium intake. In contrast, the higher supplement of ascorbic acid had a slight or no effect on healthy birds and either caused no significant shifts in immunological indices or manifested synergistic effect combined with cadmium.
The basic requirements for human health and life quality improvement are wholeness, variety and moderation in food choices. In industrial countries the numbers of adipose inhabitants is constantly growing. People consume insufficiently vegetables, fruits and fish. The missing nutrients must be augmented with the help of functional foodstuffs. The objective of the study was to compare the impact of food supplements and local products rich in fibre and polyunsaturated fatty acids on the human body. The research was conducted at the Rîga Heart Consulting Room in 2010. For two months, 60 volunteers in three groups: using the food supplement “Wellness” in their diet (Wellness group), or Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) and linseeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) (Nature group) and Control group were monitored. The participants’ weight, girth, amount of glucose and level of cholesterol were measured by standard methods. Data acquired were analysed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS (level of significance P < 0.05). The cholesterol level was reduced by 14% in the Nature Group. Glucose normalised to 5.8 mmol/l. Weight of participants was reduced by 2 to 7 kg. The results show that by enriching the daily diet with food supplements, both as natural products and as a special complex, it is possible to reduce body weight, reduce cholesterol and glucose levels in the blood, and reduce the risks of obesity and coronary heart disease.