For the past several decades, the mainstream scientific opinion on healthy diets and the recommendations for dietary intake have favored high-carbohydrate and low-fat (HCLF) diets. This position has led most countries in the world to issue dietary guidelines in favor of lowering dietary fat and increasing starch and fiber intake ( Myers et al., 2013 ). These guidelines have largely been followed as dietary carbohydrate content has gradually increased at the expense of fat ( Johnston et al., 2014 ). Despite the scientific and dietary progress in
Antonio Paoli, Pasqualina Cancellara, Pierluigi Pompei and Tatiana Moro
balance’s factors stimulates protein synthesis, on the opposite an increase in negative protein balance’s factors stimulates protein degradation. The sum of these two parts of the scale defines the net protein balance (NPB).
Considering the paramount importance of protein intake as a skeletal muscle protein synthesis stimulus, it is somewhat surprising that a relatively high protein diet such as the very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet, more simply called ketogenic diet (KD) ( Paoli, 2018 ), has been, till now, poorly investigated as far as its effects on skeletal
Dominika Maciejewska, Małgorzata Michalczyk, Maja Czerwińska-Rogowska, Marcin Banaszczak, Karina Ryterska, Karolina Jakubczyk, Jakub Piotrwski, Joanna Hołowko, Arleta Drozd, Paweł Wysokińki, Krzysztof Ficek, Krzysztof Wilk, Anna Lubkowska, Paweł Cięszczyk, Jerzy Bertrand and Ewa Stachowska
maintaining normal body mass and may lead to obesity, diabetes and many other diseases. A study conducted on a group of 100 former soccer players from Brazil showed that 78% of them were overweight and 4% suffered from obesity ( Arliani et al., 2014 ).
The generally recommended diet associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and obesity is the Mediterranean diet (MD) ( Assmann et al., 1997 ). It has been shown that this type of diet can be recommended to all populations worldwide ( Kouris-Blazos et al., 1999 ). The beneficial effect of the MD is
José Saavedra, Antonio Garcia-Hermoso and Yolanda Escalante
Barlow SE, Expert Committee. Expert committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report. Pediatrics, 2007; 120(Suppl. 1): 164-192.
Ben Ounis O, Elloumi M, Ben Chiekh I, Zbidi A, Amri M, Lac G, Tabka Z. Effects of two-month physical-endurance and diet-restriction programmes on lipid profiles and insulin resistance in obese adolescent boys. Diabetes Metab, 2008; 34(6 Pt 1): 595
Amanda Casey, Colin Boyd, Sasho MacKenzie and Roy Rasmussen
status and dietary patterns in disabled people. Nutr Metab Cardio Dis, 2006; 16: 100.-112.
Croce RV. Effects of Exercise and Diet on Body Composition and Cardiovascular Fitness in Adults with Severe Mental Retardation. Educ Train Ment Retard , 1990; 25: 176-187.
Casey AF, Rasmussen R, MacKenzie S, Glenn J. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure the influence of a sixteen-week community-based swim training program on body fat in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities. Arch Phys Med Rehab
Małgorzata Michalczyk, Adam Zajac, Kazimierz Mikolajec, Grzegorz Zydek and Józef Langfort
For years, athletes have been searching for a diet that would enhance performance while reducing body fat and the risk of other disorders ( Creighton et al., 2018 ; Greene et al., 2018 ; Maciejewska et al., 2017 ; McSwiney et al., 2017; Zajac et al., 2014 ). Till now athletes most often experiment with the low fat diets (LFD), low carbohydrate diets (LCD), and high protein diets (HPD) ( Creighton et al., 2018 ; Greene et al., 2018 ; McSwiney et al., 2018 ; Paoli et al., 2013 ; Zajac et al., 2014 ). However particular sport disciplines are
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Throughout their involvement, participants maintained their normal daily lifestyle and diet. Participants were asked to abstain from strenuous exercise 48 h before baseline testing and arrive at the laboratory in a hydrated state. Participants were advised to abstain from nutritional supplements for the duration of the study protocol; moreover, diet and activity were self-recorded for each participant during the 24
Piotr Kaczka, Małgorzata Magdalena Michalczyk, Rafał Jastrząb, Mateusz Gawelczyk and Katarzyna Kubicka
-reported training logs (84% of accuracy and similarity between participants in compliance of training). On the other hand, in Wilson et al. (2008) used a non-linear progression with tapered training volume. These may generate differences in load volume during the experiment between particular groups of subjects. Differences in diet control may have also influenced the final results (Thompson et al., 2009), especially considering that not all studies controlled the diet during the experiment. From the studies presented in this review, only four of them took diet into account
Jesús V. Giménez, Anthony S. Leicht and Miguel A. Gomez
official FIFA rules with the team’s coaches officiating the match. During each match, players wore their competition clothes and carried a GPS device inserted into a small harness (Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, Australia) attached to their back to record match demands. Participants were allowed to consume fluids ad libitum during rest periods of the matches. To minimize the influence of hydration status on performance, and to avoid dehydration (Convertino et al., 1996), all participants were advised to maintain their normal pre‐match diet with a greater focus being