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Homeostasis Model Assessment - Insulin Resistance and Sensitivity (HOMA-IR and IS) Index in Overweight Children Born Small for Gestational Age (SGA)

Abstract

Introduction: Children born small for gestational age (SGA) have increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), hypertension and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in adulthood.

Patients and Methods: In 100 children born SGA, and in second cohort having 32 obese children born in term with normal birth weight and height, anthropometric measurements and biochemical metabolic profiles were analysed. The Homeostasis Model Assessment - Insulin Resistance and Sensitivity (HOMA-IR and IS) were calculated.

Results: Four overweight/obese children (M:F=3:1) with normal height were found among 100 SGA children. The body mass index (BMI) in all 4 children was above the 98th percentile and the mean BMI z-score was (2.04±0.30 SDS). The HOMA-IR index in all four children was increased: 1.26-2.65 (>1). Two teenagers had significant hyperinsulinemia (198.00 uIU/ml and 275 uIU/ml) and were treated with metformin. Two girls needed only a diet and increased physical activity. The mean values of HOMA-IR (1.26-2.65; N< 1) and IS (58 ±17.12) in fo-ur SGA overweight/obese children who caught-up growth had indistinguishable values with the group of 32 (M: F=21:11) obese children (HOMA-IR 1.83±1.2 SDS; IS 82.99±64.53 SDS) born in term with normal birth weight and height.

Conclusions: SGA born children are usually thin; nevertheless we found overweight and obesity in 4% of the patients. Two of those children have metabolic syndrome. Excess weight, obesity and metabolic syndrome in SGA children result with increase of their inherent risk for DM2, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in adulthood.

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Let’s Go Bananas! Green Bananas and their Health Benefits

inhibitory effect of vitamin B6 and banana-stem extract on calcium crystallization]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi. 1998;36:763-5. 5 Roth-Maier DA, Kettler SI, Kirchgessner M. Availability of vitamin B6 from different food sources. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2002;53:171-9. 6 Zandonadi RP, Botelho RB, Gandolfi L, Ginani JS, Montenegro FM, Pratesi R. Green banana pasta: an alternative for gluten-free diets. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112:1068-72. 7 Haslinda WH, Cheng LH, Chong LC, Noor Aziah AA. Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of green banana (Musa

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Overdentures on Implants for Better Quality of Life Among the Fully Edentulous Patients – Case Reports

Abstract

Global aging population has brought several challenges for their medical systems and total edentulism is one of them. The fabrication of removable acrylic dentures seems to be a simple and cheap treatment solution, but a majority of patients is not satisfied with their functional instability, causing limited diets, mouth soreness, speech and psycho-social problems etc. The results in many studies indicate an impact of oral conditions associated with the full denture wearing on oral-health related quality of life, especially in lower jaw. The reason for improper denture retention could be alveolar ridge bone resorption and numerous studies about this problem are plausible. Bone resorption in lower jaw may turn the alveolar ridge into a flabby soft tissue which is unable to sustain proper denture retention.

The implant-retained prosthesis is an alternative treatment option in these situations. Implants will provide retention, stability, function and aesthetics and they are not so expensive solution. The aim of this article is to show solving of retention problems of a lower denture in two different clinical cases using implants and without any special technology.

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Protective Effects of At1-Receptor Blocker and Ca Antagonist Combination on Renal Function in Salt Loaded Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats/ Протективни Ефекти На Комбинацијата На Ат1 Рецепторен Блокатор И Калциум Антагонист Врз Реналната Функција Кај Спонтано Хипертензивни Стаорци Оптоварени Со Сол

pressure: the Trials of Hypertension Prevention, phase II. Arch Intern Med. 1997; 157 (6): 657-67. 17. Bray GA, Vollmer WM, Sacks FM, Obarzanek E, Svetkey LP, Appel LJ. DASH Collaborative Research Group A further subgroup analysis of the effects of DASH diet and three dietary sodium levels on blood pressure: results of the DASH-Sodium Trial. Am J Cardiol. 2004. 94 (2): 222-227. 18. Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM, et al. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. N Engl

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Renal Dysplasia in Bardet-Biedl Syndrome/ Бубрежна Дисплазија Кај Бардет Бидл Синдром

Kidney Dis. 2008; 2: 237-9. 16. Cherian M. P, Al-Sanna'a N. A, Ayyat F. M. Hydrometrocolpos and acute renal failure: a rare neonatal presentation of Bardet-Biedl syndrome. J Pediatr Urol. 2008; 4: 313-6. 17. Dervisoglu E, Isgoren S, Kasgari D, Demir H, Yilmaz A. Obesity control and low protein diet preserve or even improve renal functions in Bardet-Biedl syndrome: a report of two cases. Med Sci Monit. 2011; 17: CS12-14.

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Nutritional Assessment of Dialysis Patient with a Web-Based Tool Allows More Accurate Treatment of Malnutrition

kidney disease patients: a consensus statement by the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism. Kidney International. 2013; 84(6): 1096–1107. 6. Kalantar- Zadeh K, Cano NJ, Budde K, et al. Diets and enteral supplements for impruving outcomes in chronic kidney disease. Nature Reviewa Nephrology. 2011; 7(7): 396–384. 7. Kalantar-Zadeh, K., Block, G., McAllister, C. J., et al. Appetite and inflammation, nutrition, anemia, and clinical outcome in hemodialysis patients. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2004; 80: 299–307. 8

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Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence, Genetic Factors

al. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2013;26(11-12):1209-1213. 109. Reinehr T, Wolters B, Roth CL, Hinney A. (2014) FTO gene: association to weight regain after lifestyle intervention in overweight children. Horm Res Paediatr. 2014;81(6):391-396. 110. Qi L. Gene–diet interaction and weight loss. Curr Opinion Lipid. 2014;25(1):27-34. 111. Le Beyec J, Cugnet-Anceau C, Pepin D, et al. Homozygous leptin receptor mutation due to uniparental disomy of chromosome 1: response to bariatric surgery. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(2):E397-E402. 112. Aslan

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