Aleksandra Janchevska, Zoran Gucev, Velibor Tasic and Momir Polenakovic
Introduction: Children born small for gestational age (SGA) have increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), hypertension and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in adulthood.
Patients and Methods: In 100 children born SGA, and in second cohort having 32 obese children born in term with normal birth weight and height, anthropometric measurements and biochemical metabolic profiles were analysed. The Homeostasis Model Assessment - Insulin Resistance and Sensitivity (HOMA-IR and IS) were calculated.
Results: Four overweight/obese children (M:F=3:1) with normal height were found among 100 SGA children. The body mass index (BMI) in all 4 children was above the 98th percentile and the mean BMI z-score was (2.04±0.30 SDS). The HOMA-IR index in all four children was increased: 1.26-2.65 (>1). Two teenagers had significant hyperinsulinemia (198.00 uIU/ml and 275 uIU/ml) and were treated with metformin. Two girls needed only a diet and increased physical activity. The mean values of HOMA-IR (1.26-2.65; N< 1) and IS (58 ±17.12) in fo-ur SGA overweight/obese children who caught-up growth had indistinguishable values with the group of 32 (M: F=21:11) obese children (HOMA-IR 1.83±1.2 SDS; IS 82.99±64.53 SDS) born in term with normal birth weight and height.
Conclusions: SGA born children are usually thin; nevertheless we found overweight and obesity in 4% of the patients. Two of those children have metabolic syndrome. Excess weight, obesity and metabolic syndrome in SGA children result with increase of their inherent risk for DM2, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in adulthood.
Vasso Apostolopoulos, Juliana Antonipillai, Kathy Tangalakis, John F Ashton and Lily Stojanovska
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Julijana Nikolovska, Dragan Petrovski, Nikola Petricevic, Biljana Kapusevska and Vesna Korunoska-Stevkovska
Global aging population has brought several challenges for their medical systems and total edentulism is one of them. The fabrication of removable acrylic dentures seems to be a simple and cheap treatment solution, but a majority of patients is not satisfied with their functional instability, causing limited diets, mouth soreness, speech and psycho-social problems etc. The results in many studies indicate an impact of oral conditions associated with the full denture wearing on oral-health related quality of life, especially in lower jaw. The reason for improper denture retention could be alveolar ridge bone resorption and numerous studies about this problem are plausible. Bone resorption in lower jaw may turn the alveolar ridge into a flabby soft tissue which is unable to sustain proper denture retention.
The implant-retained prosthesis is an alternative treatment option in these situations. Implants will provide retention, stability, function and aesthetics and they are not so expensive solution. The aim of this article is to show solving of retention problems of a lower denture in two different clinical cases using implants and without any special technology.
Kalina Gjorgjievska, Dimce Zafirov, Maja Jurhar-Pavlova, Svetlana Cekovska, Emilija Atanasovska, Kristina Pavlovska and Dragica Zendelovska
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Nadica Ristoska Bojkovska, Lidvana Spahiu, Aleksandra Janchevska, Zoran S. Gucev and Velibor Tasic
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