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Diet And Breast Cancer: Experiences From The Malmö Diet Cancer Cohort

References Berglund, G., Elmstahl, S., Janzon, L, Larsson, S.A. (1993). The Malmo Diet and Cancer Study: Design and feasibility. J. Intern. Med., 233, 45-51. Brennan, S.F., Cantwell, M.M., Cardwell, C.R., Valentzis, L.S., Woodside, J.V. (2010). Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 91(5), 1294-1302. Ericson, U., Ivarsson, M. Sonestedt, E., Gullberg, B., Carlson, J., Olsson, H., Wirfalt, E. (2009a). Increased breast cancer risk at high plasma

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Healthy Alternatives of the Mediterranean Diet in Latvia

References Anonymous (2006). Health Compulsory Insurance State Agency. News No. 15. http://www.vmnvd.gov.lv/uploads/files/4fd09434cda66.pdf (last accessed 6 October 2013). Anonymous (2008). European cardiovascular disease statistics 2008. http://www.bhf.org.uk/publications/view-publication.aspx?ps=1001443 (last accessed 6 October 2013). Anonymous (2010). Mediterranean diet. UNESCO. http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/en/RL/00394. Anonymous (2011). Medscape Medical News, WebMD. Appendino, G

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Dietary Sodium Intake and the Main Sources of Salt in the Diet of Young Adults in Latvia

Abstract

Scientific studies have regularly confirmed that nowadays the salt consumption through food is too much, and its consumption has to be reduced. The aim of the study was to ascertain the amount of salt consumed per day by 18–35 year-old Latvians as well as to identify the main sources of salt in their diets. The following research methods were used in the study: questionnaire based on an example recommended by the World Health Organisation, sociological research method, bread baking tests, and logically constructive, and statistical research methods. The results of this research showed that the average intake of salt in the diet of 18–35 year-old Latvians was 7.1 g per day. Of all the respondents, 63% consumed more than the recommended 5 g of salt per day, and none of them consumed less than necessary to meet their physiological needs. The results showed that women consumed less salt than men — approximately 6 g per day, while men consumed 8.2 g of salt per day. The main sources of salt in the diet of 18–35 year old Latvians were cereals and cereal products, as well as meat and meat products. Among cereal products, the key source of salt was represented by bread and pastry.

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Eating Habits of Children and Adolescents with Epilepsy in Latvia

References Amari, A., Dahlquist, L., Kossoff, E. H., Vining, E. P. G., Trescher, W. H., Slifer, K. J. (2007). Children with seizures exhibit preferences for foods compatible with the ketogenic diet. Epilepsy Behav., 11 , 98-104. Asadi Pooya, A. A., Ghafari, A. (2004). Do patients with epilepsy think they need specific dietary restrictions? Epilepsy Behav., 5 , 945-948. Asadi-Pooya, A. A., Hossein-Zade, A. (2005). What do nurses and physicians think about the need for specific dietary restrictions in

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Dietary Behaviour in Students with Different Body Fat Percent

References Anonymous (2000). Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic . Report of aWHOConsultation.WHOTechnical Report Series 894. Geneva. 253 pp. Anonymous (2003). Diet, nutrition and prevention of chronic diseases . Report of a joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series 916. Geneva. 149 pp. Blumfelds, L., Rumaka, M., Lagzdina, R., Aberberga-Augskalne, L. (2011). Ar svaru saistîtâs íermeòa uzbûves paðnovçrtçjuma precizitâte studentiem [Accuracy of self-estimated body

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Knowledge of the Importance of Iodine in Nutrition among Adults in Latvia

Abstract

The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) states that it is essential for people to understand what constitutes a healthy diet and to know how to use their resources in the most effective way. Iodine is an essential nutrient for mammals, required as a mandatory structural and functional element of thyroid hormones. Previous studies in Latvia highlighted a tendency of reduced level of iodine for newborns, school-age children and pregnant women. No studies in the general adult population had been conducted yet. The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of knowledge regarding the role of iodine in nutrition in the adult population of Latvia. In total 199 adults participated in the survey. Data on the knowledge about the occurrence of iodine in nature and foodstuffs, the role of iodine in nutrition, and its deficiency were obtained. Results of the survey showed that only 4.5% of respondents used iodised salt daily in the diet. One-fourth knew that iodine is widely found in the environment and more than one-third knew all of the main functions of iodine in the human body. Salt and sea food were mentioned as the most common iodine sources. While iodised salt is used rarely, public awareness about the role of iodine is good and potential iodine deficiency in Latvia is likely due to unbalanced diet rather than lack of knowledge.

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Concentration-Dependent Antioxidant/Pro-Oxidant Activity of Ascorbic Acid in Chickens

The effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress, cadmium accumulation in organs, immune system activity and kidney function in chickens were investigated. The treatment groups of chickens were fed either plain diet or diet supplemented with ascorbic acid at 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg for four weeks. Liver and kidney tissues were assayed for cadmium concentration, and the hepatic levels of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA; the oxidised form), malondialdehyde, glutathione, activity of glutathione peroxidase, blood serum uric acid, creatinine, lysozyme and circulating immune complexes were measured. Supplementation with a high dose of ascorbic acid (1000 and 2000 mg/kg in the diet) caused an imbalance between pro-oxidative and antioxidative activities, and induced a suppressive effect on innate immunity. The results suggest that oxidative stress compromises renal function. We observed that ascorbic acid increased cadmium accumulation in a dose-dependent manner.

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Dietary modulation of immune responses by ascorbic acid in healthy and cadmium-induced immunocompromised chickens

Dietary modulation of immune responses by ascorbic acid in healthy and cadmium-induced immunocompromised chickens

The assessment of immunological changes induced in chickens by feeding 50 mg cadmium per 1 kg of diet from hatching to 30 days of age was studied. Furthermore, the modulatory effects of different supplemental doses of ascorbic acid (100 and 1000 mg per 1 kg of diet) were investigated. The observed immunocompromise in chickens continuously exposed to cadmium resulted in a decreased growth rate and disturbance of immune responses, both on nonspecific and specific levels. The effect of supplements 100 and 1000 mg of ascorbic acid per 1 kg of diet differed. The low dosage of ascorbic acid had immunostimulative action in healthy cadmium-untreated chickens, provided correction of compromised immunity, and increased tolerance of the birds to subtoxic cadmium intake. In contrast, the higher supplement of ascorbic acid had a slight or no effect on healthy birds and either caused no significant shifts in immunological indices or manifested synergistic effect combined with cadmium.

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Nutritional Supplements in Optimal Human Nutrition

Abstract

The basic requirements for human health and life quality improvement are wholeness, variety and moderation in food choices. In industrial countries the numbers of adipose inhabitants is constantly growing. People consume insufficiently vegetables, fruits and fish. The missing nutrients must be augmented with the help of functional foodstuffs. The objective of the study was to compare the impact of food supplements and local products rich in fibre and polyunsaturated fatty acids on the human body. The research was conducted at the Rîga Heart Consulting Room in 2010. For two months, 60 volunteers in three groups: using the food supplement “Wellness” in their diet (Wellness group), or Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) and linseeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) (Nature group) and Control group were monitored. The participants’ weight, girth, amount of glucose and level of cholesterol were measured by standard methods. Data acquired were analysed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS (level of significance P < 0.05). The cholesterol level was reduced by 14% in the Nature Group. Glucose normalised to 5.8 mmol/l. Weight of participants was reduced by 2 to 7 kg. The results show that by enriching the daily diet with food supplements, both as natural products and as a special complex, it is possible to reduce body weight, reduce cholesterol and glucose levels in the blood, and reduce the risks of obesity and coronary heart disease.

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Assimilation of Selenium, Copper, and Zinc in Rye Malt

Abstract

Trace elements selenium, copper, and zinc are essential minerals for the human body. One of the means to increase the micronutrient content in diets is to add them to food raw materials, for example, to enrich grain with micronutrients during malt production. To obtain rye malt, 3 kg grain was soaked in 10 l water with addition of three mineral salts — sodium selenate (Na2SeO4), copper sulphate (CuSO4 5H2O), and zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 7H2O) at different concentrations and different combination of salts. The concentration of selenium, copper, and zinc was determined in rye malt. The obtained results were used to calculate the degree of assimilation of trace elements in rye malt. The interaction of trace elements selenium/copper and copper/zinc was studied. The total amount of selenium, copper, and zinc was analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Sample preparation for elemental analysis was performed by wet acid digestion in a closed microwave mineralisation system. The selenium assimilation degree in rye malt was within 10.6 to 12.2%. Accordingly, copper assimilation was 32.8 to 38.0% and zinc 49.3 to 57.0%. Simultaneous presence of selenium/copper and copper/zinc during rye grain soaking promoted the assimilation of each mineral, compared with only one mineral additive.

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