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Dietary specifications reflect the feeding behaviour of the European otter (Lutra lutra) in “Strandzha” Natural Park (Bulgaria)

References [1] Kranz A. Otters ( Lutra lutra ) increasing in Central Europe: from the threat of extinction to locally perceived overpopulation? Mammalia. 1998, 64, 4, 357-368. [2] Adamek Z, Kucerova M, Roche K. The role of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) in the diet of piscivorous predators – cormorants ( Phalacrocorax carbo ) and otter ( Lutra lutra ). Bull. VURH Vodnany. 1999 , 4, 185–193. [3] Adamek Z, Kortan D, Lepic P, Andreji J. Impacts of otter ( Lutra lutra L.) predation on fishponds: A study of fish remains at ponds in the Czech

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Nutritional status in short-term overtraining boxers

Abstract

The diet is essential to the recovery process in athletes, especially those undergoing intensive training. The continuous imbalance between loading and recovery leads to development of overtraining syndrome. The purpose of this study was to establish the changes in the nutritional status of short-term overtrained athletes. Twelve boxers from the team of National Spoils Academy Sofia, Bulgaria during their preparation for the National Championship 2016 were studied. The measurements were conducted three times.in the beginning of preparation (T1), 22 days later (2) and 10 days after (32 days after first measurement), in the beginning of the recovery period, one week prior the competition (T3).The measurements included basic anthropometric data, overtraining questionnaire RESTO-Sport and nutrition questionnaire, plasma concentration of testosterone and cortisol.On the data of dietary survey the percent proportion and the amount of daily consumed proteins, fats and carbohydrates were defined and the energy intake of the tested athletes was calculated. According to the RESTO-Sport a significant decrease in the ratio stress/recovery was observed in the period with the heaviest training load T2, and an increase was estimated in the pre­competition recovery period T3. It was found a typical for the overtraining syndrome decrease in the concentration of testosterone and the ratio of testosterone/cortisol in T3. In some respondents a reduction in carbohydrates and proteins intake was observed in T2 and especially in T3, which correlates with the hormonal changes. In this work the diet changes was discussed as a possible consequence and/or a cause of the overtraining syndrome.

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Size does matter – Intraspecific variation of feeding mechanics in the crested newt Triturus dobrogicus (Kiritzescu, 1903)

, 1985 , pp 210-229. [5]. Haynes, W. M., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 97 th ed. Boca Raton, London, New York, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2016 . [6]. Alexander, R. N., Functional design in fishes. Hutchinson Press, London, 1967 . [7]. Herrel, A.; Aerts, P., Biomechanical Studies of Food and Diet Selection. Nature Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Nature Publishing Group, London, 2003 , pp 1-8. [8]. Deban, S. M., Constraint and convergence in the evolution of salamander feeding. In: Vertebrate Biomechanics and Evolution, Eds., J

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