At present, one of the major reasons of death in the world is cardiovascular disease (CVD), related to the epidemiological transition of unhealthy lifestyles such as smoking habits, diabetesmellitus and obesity [ 1 , 2 ]. Atrial and ventricular arrhythmias are two important factors in cardiovascular disease of which cardiac rhythm disorder and heartbeat abnormalities are great public challenges in developed countries. It can be said that the variations in the heart cellular electrophysiology are the main cause for arrhythmias, as common causes
Leslie D. Montgomery, Richard W. Montgomery, Wayne A. Gerth, Marty Loughry, Susie Q. Lew and Manuel T. Velasquez
circulatory changes for individual patients during HD we provide the results of two very different patients below. The results of BIS and CritLine® along with simultaneous BP and hemodynamic (blood flow) measurements were obtained in the two ESKD patients:
1) Patient Type A, a 57-yr old male with long-standing hypertension and past medical history of congestive heart failure and
2) Patient Type B, a 26 year old male with long-standing type-1 diabetesmellitus complicated by severe diabetic autonomic neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and diabetic nephropathy.
Natália T. Bellafronte, Marina R. Batistuti, Nathália Z. dos Santos, Héric Holland, Elen A. Romão and Paula G. Chiarello
fasting period of 12 h [ 8 ]. For the HD group, the fasting period was of 2 h. Measurements were always made with a drained abdominal cavity and up to 15 minutes after HD mid-week session.
Clinical data from non-CKD and CKD groups were obtained through interviews and medical records, respectively. Patients in the PD group were under automated PD (60%) or continuous ambulatory PD (40%). Patients in HD were treated through arteriovenous fistula, three times a week with 4-h sessions. The criteria used for diagnosis of CKD, diabetesmellitus (DM), and systemic arterial