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A new diagnostic perspective – hyperglycemia in pregnancy – as of the year, 2014

References 1. American Diabetes Association: Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 2014 Jan; 37 Suppl 1: 81-90. 2. Barbour L.A. et al.: Cellular mechanisms for insulin resistance in normal pregnancy and gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care, 30, 112-19, 2007. 3. Ben-Haroush A., Yogev Y., Hod M.: Epidemiology of gestational diabetes mellitus and its association with Type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med, 21[2], 103-13, 2004. 4. Briana D.D., Malamitsi-Puchner A.: Reviews

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Flozins, inhibitors of type 2 renal sodium-glucose co-transporter – not only antihyperglycemic drugs

References 1. Bhatia K. et al.: Canagliflozin-current status in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus with focus on clinical trial data. World J. Diabetes, 5, 399, 2014. 2. Chao E., Henry R.: SGLT2 inhibition - a novel strategy for diabetes treatment. Nature Rev. Drug Discov., 9, 551, 2010. 3. Diamant M., Morsink L.: SGLT2 inhibitors for diabetes: turning symptoms into therapy. Lancet, 382, 917, 2013. 4. Endocrine Today. http://www.healio.com/endocrinology/diabetes/(...)sglt2-inhibitors

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The blood resistin level in patients with DM2, depending on the duration of the disease

; 409: 307-12. 17. Tokuyama Y. et al.: Serum resistin level is associated with insulin sensitivity in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism, 2007; 56 (5): 693-698. 18. Vozarova De Courten B. et al.: High serum resistin is associated with an increase in adiposity but not worsening of insulin resistance in Pima Indian. Diabetes, 2004; 53 (9): 1279-1284.

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Novel pentacyclic triterpene isolated from seeds of Euryale Ferox Salisb. ameliorates diabetes in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

content and microscopic structure of pancreas and liver in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 34 : 964–967. Nordlie RC, Foster JD, Lange AJ. (1999). Regulation of glucose production by the liver. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 19 : 379–406. Packer JE, Slater TF, Willson RL. (1978). Reactions of the carbon tetrachloride related peroxy free radical with amino acids: pulse radiolysis evidence. Life Sci. 23 : 2617–20. Poretsky L. (ed.) Principles of Diabetes mellitus, Springer Science and Business Media 2010; 821–822. Rai UN

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Natural flavonoids as potential multifunctional agents in prevention of diabetic cataract

Maillard reaction. Ann NY Acad Sci   1043 : 111-117. Thorpe SR, Baynes JW. (1996). Role of the Maillard reaction in diabetes mellitus and diseases of aging. Drugs Aging   9 : 69-77. Turk Z. (2010). Glycotoxines, carbonyl stress and relevance to diabetes and its complications. Physiol Res   59 : 147-156. Urios P, Grigorova-Borsos AM, Sternberg M. (2007). Flavonoids inhibit the formation of the cross-linking AGE pentosidine in collagen incubated with glucose, according to their structure. Eur

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Trends in vascular pharmacology research in the Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Bratislava

Trends in vascular pharmacology research in the Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Bratislava

Research in the Department of Pharmacology started to focus intensively on fetal circulation in the 60s. Results of experiments contributed to clarification of the conversion of fetal circulation type to the adult type: the mechanism of the ductus arteriosus closure, examination of fetal and neonatal pulmonary vessel responses. In the early 80s, increased attention was dedicated to fetal vascular endothelium, later on to vascular reactivity in relation to the endothelium in adult animals. We developed original models of vascular endothelial damage using the perfusion method (repeated vasoconstrictive stimuli, deendothelization by air bubbles). We developed a new technique for in vitro endothelial loss quantification on Millipore filters. Under in vitro conditions, the protective effects of sulodexide and pentoxifylline on vascular endothelium were evaluated. In recent years were studied protective effects of selected substances in vivo in models of endothelial damage (e.g. stress, toxic tissue damage, diabetes mellitus, hypertension). The role of potassium channels in the hypertension model was studied in cooperation with the Czech Academy of Sciences. Assessment of vascular reactivity in the diabetic model was significantly improved by computer. In addition to experimental work, the department is solving problems of clinical pharmacology - especially drug risk evaluation (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Recently, we have dealt with pharmacoepidemiological studies in geriatric patients and with cardiovascular risk of NSAIDs in relation to pharmacotherapy. The results of these studies may be an impulse for targeted problem solving in our experiments.

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Developmental origin of chronic diseases: toxicological implication

Developmental origin of chronic diseases: toxicological implication

Human epidemiological and experimental animal studies show that suboptimal environments in fetal and neonatal life exerts a profound influence on physiological function and risk of disease in adult life. The molecular, cellular, metabolic, endocrine and physiological adaptations to intrauterine nutritional conditions result in permanent alterations of cellular proliferation and differentiation of tissues and organ systems, which in turn can manifest by pathological consequences or increased vulnerability to chronic diseases in adulthood. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to intrauterine development derangements is considered the important factor in development of such diseases as essential hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic diseases of the heart, osteoporosis, respiratory, neuropsychiatric and immune system diseases.

An early life exposures to dietary and environmental exposures can have a important effect on epigenetic code, resulting in diseases developed later in life. The concept of the "developmental programming" and Developmental Origins of Adult Diseases (DOHaD) has become well accepted because of the compelling animal studies that have precisely defined the outcomes of specific exposures. The environmental pollullutants and other chemical toxicants may influence crucial cellular functions during critical periods of fetal development and permanently alter the structure or function of specific organ systems. Developmental epigenetics is believed to establish "adaptive" phenotypes to meet the demands of the later-life environment. Resulting phenotypes that match predicted later-life demands will promote health, while a high degree of mismatch will impede adaptability to later-life challenges and elevate disease risk. The rapid introduction of synthetic chemicals, environmental pollutants and medical interventions, may result in conflict with the programmed adaptive changes made during early development, and explain the alarming increases in some diseases.

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Hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and anti-lipid peroxidation properties of a methanol extract of Paullinia pinnata root-bark, in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats

Reference 1. Ajiboye BO, Oloyede HOB, Salawu MO. Antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic activity of Musa paradisiaca – based diet in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Food Sci Nutr. 2018;6:137-45. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.538 2. Chen L, Magliano DJ, Zimmet PZ. The worldwide epidemiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus – present and future perspectives. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2012;8:228-36. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrendo.2011.183 3. Matsuda M, Shimomura I. Increased oxidative stress in obesity: implications for metabolic syndrome, diabetes

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Diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes – from pathological mechanisms to clinical occupational medicine practice

References 1. Mota M, Popa SG, Mota E, Mitrea A, Catrinoiu D, Cheta DM, Guja C, Hancu N, Ionescu-Tirgoviste C, Lichiardopol R, Mihai BM, Popa AR, Zetu C, Bala CG, Roman G, Serafinceanu C, Serban V, Timar R, Veresiu IA, Vlad AR. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and prediabetes in the adult Romanian population: PREDATORR study. J Diabetes. 2016;8:336-44. 2. Sorrentino FS, Matteini S, Bonifazzi C, Sebastiani A, Parmeggiani F. Diabetic retinopathy and endothelin system: microangiopathy versus endothelial dysfunction. Eye. 2018; 32:1157–63. 3.Vinod PB

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Protection of the vascular endothelium in experimental situations

References Afanasjev I. (2010). Signaling of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in Diabetes mellitus. Oxid Med Cell Longev   3 : 361-373. Babior BM. (1999). NADPH-oxidase. An update. Blood   93 : 1464-1476. BauerV, Sotníková R and Gergeľ D. (2008). Comparison of the effects of activated neutrophils with the action of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on rat aortic smooth muscle (RASM). Prague Med Report   109 : 13-14. Beckman JS, Beckman TW, Chen J

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