Brankica Krstevska, Sasha Misevska Jovanovska, Slagjana Simeonova Krstevska, Valentina Velkoska Nakova and Vladimir Serafimoski
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Marijan Bosevski, Gorjan Krstevski, Irena Mitevska, Emilija Antova and Golubinka Bosevska
These case reports aim to show that hyperfibrinogenemia is a risk factor for the progression and prognosis of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), in patients with and without diabetes mellitus type 2.
We present a patient with PAD who has type 2 diabetes mellitus, who has previously been repeatedly treated for lower limb ischemia with multiple vascular surgeries performed. A few weeks before admission the patient developed critical lower limb ischemia, which was treated with an iliaco-popliteal and femorofemoral bypass. The patient had elevated serum fibrinogen values. In the current admission, renewed left limb ischemia was diagnosed, and surgically evaluated with a recommendation for amputation of the left limb as a surgical recommendation. Our second patient had a stable intermittent claudication, dyslipidemia and hyperfibrinogenemia. He was successfully treated for those risk factors. Regular monitoring of the patient showed improved claudication distance and quality of life
Our case reports, supported by a literature review, demonstrate that hyperfibrinogenemia is a possible risk factor for progression and the prognosis of PAD.
Dimitrios S Goumenos, Evangelos Papachristou and Marios Papasotiriou
The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is high as CKD and CHF share underlying risk factors such as arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Cardiac failure leads to renal hypoperfusion and dysfunction and then fluid overload and need for aggressive diuretic therapy. However, development of diuretic resistance represents a significant problem in the management of these patients.
The role of Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) is important for patients who do not response to conservative management of fluid overload facilitating the failing heart to restore function. According to the guidelines, venovenous isolated Ultrafiltration (UF) is indicated for patients with refractory congestion not responding to medical therapy with loop diuretics and infusion of dopamine. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials on the effect of UF vs. IV furosemide for decompensated heart failure showed a benefit of UF on total body weight loss and on readmissions due to heart failure in patients with decompensated heart failure and CKD. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) can provide efficient ultrafiltration and sodium extraction in volume overloaded patients followed by decline of hospitalization days, decrease of body weight and improvement of LVEF in patients with refractory heart failure. The continuous draw of ultrafiltrate is followed by a lesser risk of abrupt hypotension and better preservation of the residual kidney function. This represents a significant advantage of PD over intermittent UF by dialysis.
In conclusion, application of UF by dialysis and PD is followed by significant total body weight loss, reduced need for hospital readmissions and better quality of life. PD has a higher probability of preservation of residual kidney function and can be used by patients at home.