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Proinsulin in Healthy Pregnancy, Pregnancy with Gestational Diabetes and after Delivery

References 1. Amara , F. E. et al. Study of pro-insulin level and its role in a cohort of women with gestational diabetes in Alexandria, Egypt. - J. Diabetology, 2011, 1-3, 2. American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classifi cation of diabetes mellitus. - Diabetes Care, 30, 2007, S42-S47. 3. Andy, M. et C. Ionescu-Tirgoviste. Fetal pro-insulin and insulin and placental weight in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes. - Research, 8, 2012, № 29, 140

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Assessment of Beta-Cell Function During Pregnancy and after Delivery

sensitivity and β-cell glucose sensitivity from the response to intravenous glucose. - J. Clin. Invest., 68, 1981, № 68, 1456-1467. 4. Buchanan , T. A. Pancreatic Β-cell defects in gestational diabetes: implications for the pathogenesis and prevention of type 2 diabetes. - J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 86, 2001, 989-993. 5. Buchanan , T. A. et A. H. Xiang. Gestational diabetes mellitus. - J. Clin. Invest., 115, 2005, 485-491. 6. Buchanan , А. T., A. H. Xiang, L. K. Siri et R. Watanabe. What is gestational diabetes? - Diabetes

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Methods for Ultrasound Screening of Cardiovascular Diseases in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

? Diabetes Care 2003;26:688-696. 4. Norhammar A, Tenerz Å, Nilsson G, et al . Glucose metabolism in patients with acute myocardial infarction and no previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. A prospective study. Lancet 2002; 359: 2140-2144. 5. Lang R, Biering M, Devereux RB et al. Recommendations for Chamber Quantification: A Report from the American Society of Echocardiography’s Guidelines and Standards Committee and the Chamber Quantification Writing Group, Developed in Conjuction with the European Association of Echocardiography, a Branch

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Lipid Indices, Elastin Turnover and the Development of Microvascular Complications – A Study in Diabetic Patients with Arterial Hypertension


Background and Aims: An important factor in the development of vascular wall lesions is the degradation of the elastic fiber major protein – elastin. Elastin peptides (EDP) derived from this degradation are present in the circulation and are a stimulus for the production of anti-elastin antibodies (AEAbs) IgM, IgG and IgA. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between AEAbs, lipid indices and the development of microvascular complications.

Material and Methods: Sera of 93 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and arterial hypertension (AH) were investigated (mean age 61,4 ± 11,3 years, diabetes duration 9,88 ± 3,12 years; hypertension duration 9,28 ± 4,98). ELISA was used for determination of anti-elastin antibodies. These levels were compared to serum AEAbs in 42 age- and sex-matched controls. Diabetic patients were divided in two groups according to the presence – Group 1 (n = 67) or absence – Group 2 (n = 26) of microangiopathy. The lipid profile and lipid indices (log TG/HDL, LDL/HDL, TC/HDL and TG/HDL) were also studied.

Results: Patients with T2DM and AH showed statistically significant higher levels of serum AEAbs IgA than healthy controls – 0,338 (0,133÷0,452) vs. 0,006 (0,052÷0,068) (KW = 19,54; P < 0.0001). Group 1 showed statistically significant higher levels of AEAbs IgA than patients without microangiopathy – 0,353 (0,173÷0,471) vs. 0,235 (0,098÷0,377) (KW = 3,36; p = 0.05) and healthy controls – 0,353 (0,173÷0,471) vs. 0,006 (0,052÷0,068) (KW = 20,37; p < 0,0001) (0.37 ± 0,03 vs. 0.06÷0.01) (p = 0.0001). Patients from Group 2 showed significantly higher levels of AEAbs IgA than controls 0,235 (0,098÷0,377) vs. 0,006 (0,052÷0,068) (KW = 8,54; P = 0.003). AEAbs IgA showed correlation with insulin dose (r = −0.35); (p = 0.01), SBP (r = 0.31); (p = 0.001), HbA1c (r = 0.21); (p = 0.04), BMI (r = 0.22); (p = 0.01). AEAbs IgA correlated with log TG/HDL (r = 0.28); (p = 0.001), LDL/HDL (r = 0.22); (p = 0.01) TC/HDL (r = 0.22); (p = 0.01) and with TG/HDL (r = 0.15); (p = 0.05).

Conclusion: Our study proved a relationship between elevation of AEAb IgA, high lipid indices and the development of microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension.

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Lack of Correlation of the Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D Levels with the Glycated Hemoglobin A1c and the Lipid Profile in Type 2 Diabetes Patients on Oral Antidiabetic Drugs – Preliminary Data

References 1 . Al - Shoume r, K. A. et al. Does insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes alter vitamin D status? -Prim. Care Diabetes, 7, 2013, № 4, 283-7. 2 . Bakalov, D., M. Boyanov, A. Tsakova, et al. Prevalence of deficiency and insufficiency of vitamin D in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on oral antidiabetic drugs. - Endocrinologia, 18, 2013, № 1, 19-26. (article in Bulgarian). 3 . Borissova, А. М. et al. Frequency of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in the Bulgarian population ≥ 20-80 years

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Markers for Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease and Microvascular Disease – Is there a Difference?

of inflammation and oxidant stress. JAMA 2002;288:2008-2014. 5. Davi G, Ciabattoni G, Consoli M, et al. In vivo formation of 8-iso-prostaglandin f2alpha and platelet activation in diabetes mellitus: effects of improved metabolic control and vitamin E supplementation. Circulation 1999;99:224-229. 6. Minuz P, Patrignani P, Gaino S, et al. Increased oxidative stress and platelet activation in patients with hypertension and renovascular disease. Circulation 2002;106:2800-2805. 7. Lavie L, Lavie P. Molecular mechanisms of cardioavascular disease in

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Family-based Association Study of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Genes with Leukemia

Research, 2011, 39, D913-D919. 23. Spielman RS, McGinnis RE, Ewens WJ. Transmission test for linkage disequilibrium: the insulin gene region and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Am J Hum Genet, 1993, 52: 506-516. 24. Wall J, Pritchard J. Haplotypes blocks and linkage disequilibrium in the human genome. Nat Rev Genet, 2003, 4, 587-597. 25. Knapp M. The transmission/disequilibrium test and parental-genotype reconstruction: the reconstruction-combined transmission/disequilibrium test. Am J Hum Genet, 1999, 64, 861-870. 26. Spielman RS

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Trace Elements and Vitamin D in Gestational Diabetes

References 1. Diagnostic criteria and classification of hyperglycaemia first detected in pregnancy (WHO/NMH/ MND/13.2). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013. 2. Beckmann CRB, Ling F, Herbert WNP et al. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 7th ed. Baltimore; Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2014. 3. Bowers K, Yeung E, Williams MA et al. A prospective study of prepregnancy dietary iron intake and risk for gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2011;34 (7):1557-63. 4. Ganz T, Nemeth E. Hepcidin and

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Cardiovascular Risk in Type 2 Diabetic Patients With Asymptomatic Hyperuricemia and Gout

factors for progression to incident hyperinsulinemia: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, 1987-1998. Am J Epidemiol 2003; 158(11):1058-67. 5. Boyle JA, McKiddie M, Buchanan KD, et al. Diabetes mellitus and gout. Blood sugar and plasma insulin responses to oral glucose in normal weight, overweight, and gouty patients. 1969; Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases; 28(4):374-8. 6. Niskanen L, Laaksonen DE, Lindstrom J, et al. Serum uric acid as a harbinger of metabolic outcome in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention

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A Comparative Analysis of Serum Lipids in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C, Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Healthy Controls

-80. 13. WHO/IDF Report, Definition and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and intermediate hyperglycemia, 2006. 14. Vanni E, Abate ML, Rizzetto M et al. Sites and mechanisms of insulin resistance in nonobese, nondiabetic patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2009 Sep;50(3):697-706. 15. Jonsson JR, Barrie HD, O’Rourke P et al. Obesity and steatosis influence serum and hepatic inflammatory markers in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 48, 2008, 1, 80-87. 16. White DL, Ratziu V, El-Serag HB. Hepatitis C infection and risk of diabetes: a systematic

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