The present investigation deals with the problem of estimation of population mean in two-phase (double) sampling. Utilizing information on two auxiliary variables, one chain exponential ratio and regression type estimator has been proposed and its properties are studied under two different structures of twophase sampling. To make the estimator practicable, unbiased version of the proposed strategy has also been developed. The dominance of the suggested estimator over some contemporary estimators of population mean has been established through numerical illustrations carried over the data set of some natural population and artificially generated population. Categorization of the dominance ranges of the proposed estimation strategies are deployed through defuzzification tools, which are followed by suitable recommendations.
The article describes the main requirements of the software subsystems management development. Standard IEC 61508-3 provides an overview at all stages of the life cycle of all security systems, including E/E/PE of a security system from initial concept, design, and implementation to operation maintenance. In this paper we analyzed set out requirements for the drafting of a software architecture that is consistent with the hardware architecture while meeting specified requirements for software safety.
A fluent programming is the programming technique where operations return a value that allows the invocation of another operation. With the fluent programming, it is perfectly natural to end up with one huge statement that is the concatenation of as many operations as you like. The Java Development Kit (JDK) streams (added in Java 8) are designed to support fluent programming. Instead of looping over all elements in the sequence repeatedly (once for filter, then again for map, and eventually for toArray), the chain of filtermapper-collector can be applied to each element in just one pass over the sequence. In this context, we often encounter lambda expressions used to create locally defined anonymous functions. They provide a clear and concise way to represent one method interface using an expression. Oracle claims that use of lambda expressions also improve the collection libraries making it easier to iterate through, filter, and extract data from a collection. In addition, new concurrency features improve performance in multicore environments.
There are multiple ways to traverse, iterate, or loop collection in Java. Therefore, to solve one problem, we have several options for solutions that differ by undeniably increasing of the code readability. Searching for answers to the question of whether these new features really bring performance benefits over conventional way, is the subject of this paper.
Accurate and fast identification of a person from a security point of view is a key procedure. The most common technique of person identification uses identity cards. In contrary to the common approach we focus our research on identification based on the body movement such as the gait in this paper. The gait and the posture belong to the unique characteristics of the person that helps us to facilitate the identification. The proposed methodology allows us to incorporate personal characteristics into the access control systems using the color depth camera (RGBD). For the sake of gait analysis, the important task is to recognize the figure and extract the skeleton data from a video recording. Besides the usage of the mathematical statistics methods, we are opting to use computer animation and computer vision methods, which makes the research interdisciplinary. The main novelty of the paper is the definition and extraction of the feature vector from motion capture data, the analysis methodology and finally the selection of few statistically dominant motion attributes for the identification purposes. Besides the development of new approaches in this field, we validate proposed approaches from the perspective of accuracy.
Reliability of the technological processes or reliability of devices used in different industries is an important part of designing safety critical systems. The failure of such systems leads to economic losses, health damage or environmental pollution. An important role in the development of safety critical systems is therefore the reliability analysis, the assessment of the risks associated with the use of the technical means and the consequent reduction of this risk. The actual level of risk considered tolerable will vary depending on a number of factors such as the level of human control over the circumstances, the voluntary or unintentional nature of the risk, the number of people at risk in each individual case, the degree of responsibility placed on safety and critical systems reflects the need for quality design and ensure of software safety. Various standards and methods are used to achieve the desired level of safety. One of the methods used for reliability analysis is the use of a block diagram of reliability.
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