Elsebeth Frey, Ragnhild K. Olsen and G. Anthony Giannoumis
journalism education (Hultén & Edwardsson, 2017).
In light of the increased calls for experiential learning opportunities in journalism and for academic research into such opportunities ( Parks, 2015 ), this article presents a small-scale study that investigates cooperation between journalism and computer science students in a joint development project offered at Oslo Metropolitan University. The computer science students came from the fields of applied information technology and software engineering. Drawing on the work of Galison (1997) , Collins and colleagues (2007
In this article, knowledge building through combinations of methods in a digital context is discussed and explored. Two types of digital bigger and smaller data-driven media studies are used as examples: digital focus groups and the combination of internet traffic measurements, surveys and diaries. The article proposes the concept of digital method triangulation. Digital method triangulation is argued to be a way to approach the “meaning problem” to make sense of small and big data. Digital method triangulation is argued 1) to stimulate the innovative use of known methods for unexpected dimensions within the studied topic; 2) with appropriate theoretical and meta-theoretical reflections, to provide more certainty in conclusions; and 3) to assist in constructing a more comprehensive perspective on specific analyses. The conclusion is that triangulation is even more important in the digital realm, as it facilitates dialogue between conventional and digital methods, dialogue that seems crucial to capture the complexities of the onlife.
Jaana Hujanen, Katja Lehtisaari, Carl-Gustav Lindén and Mikko Grönlund
conglomerates also illustrates this period ( Picard, 2003 ).
As we see it, recent changes in legacy media and the development of new types of hyperlocal media are part of a larger transformation regarding the Finnish media, media businesses and media ecosystems. Following this, we will conclude our analysis by continuing the discussion about Picard’s eras, as our focus is on the 2000s.
What are hyperlocal media?
Previously, researchers have defined hyperlocal media from several viewpoints. Some scholars associate hyperlocal with voluntarism and participatory
Making sense of the new Nordic food movement on the web
Anders Kristian Munk
-anthropology and the digital natives. In L. Botin & T. Børsen (eds), What is techno-anthropology (pp. 287-310).
Munk, A. K. & Ellern, A. B. (2015). Mapping the New Nordic issuescape: How to navigate a diffuse controversy with digital methods. In G. T. Jóhannesson, R. v d Duim & C. Ren, (eds.), Tourism encounters and controversies: Ontological politics of tourism development (pp.xx). Aalborg University Press
Munk, A. K. & Jensen, T. E. (2015). Revisiting the histories of mapping, Ethnologia Europaea, Special issue: European Ethnology Revisited , 44(2): 31
The local media landscape is changing rapidly. Old legacy media is downsizing and closing local offices, and new kinds of local media are developing on all platforms, such as free printed weeklies, hyperlocal online news sites and local community radio (Nygren et al., 2018; Olsen et al., 2018 ; Williams & Harte, 2016). At the same time, Facebook has developed into a general platform for people to stay up to date with their local community through both social networks and links to media outlets.
This development is not uniquely Swedish or
Carl-Gustav Lindén, Jaana Hujanen and Katja Lehtisaari
criticism of journalists not living up to their ideals or abusing their power. However, these are four important functions that support deliberative democracy, providing transparency and guidance, a specific form of sense-making service ( Deuze, 2008 ).
The withdrawal of professional news media from local communities, where they should serve so-called “critical information needs”, has become a problem in various
parts of the world ( Napoli et al., 2018 ; Nygren & Althén, 2014 ; Ramsay & Moore, 2016 ). This development can have serious implications for local life and
other outlets, and developing channels owned by the organisation itself, in which they can publish their own news stories.
Since new technology and digitalisation are a large part of the changing landscape of media, the development brings possibilities for journalism – or at least for news services – and creates opportunities for niche media as well as for individual actors with less financial support (e.g. Nygren, 2016 ). Consequently, digitalisation has repeatedly been emphasised as one of the enabling forces behind the emergence of new initiatives whose aim is
Entrepreneurial processes and passions of online news start-ups
, both voluntary and income generating, Harte and colleagues (2016) discover a lack of financial motives. The hyperlocal entrepreneur draws rather from a civic discourse, with motivations like participating in the community and filling the news gap. On the other hand, the authors find both attitudes and behaviours that could be described as entrepreneurial, such as autonomy, creativity and the development of a wider set of skills.
However, independence provided by financial skills is also regarded as a crucial factor in the hyperlocals’ possibility of fulfilling a
context of today’s digital maturity.
Sweden will be used as a case, as the country is relevant in terms of both media development and the level of digitalisation. Since 2004, nearly half of the local editorial offices for local newspapers have been shut down ( Nygren et al., 2017 ), leaving every fourth municipality in Sweden without a newsroom. Consequently, 73 Swedish municipalities do not have any staffed weekly paper, free sheet, news site or other media ( Leckner & Nygren, 2016 ).
This article will first review the theoretical framework around media development
development. Until then, the newspapers had to publish two editions a week and achieve a circulation of at least 2,000 per issue to qualify for subsidies. From 1989 on, one edition a week and circulation figures of 1,000 copies were sufficient. Almost all local, printed newspapers established after 1989 were weekly. The figures show that from 1990 to 1999 the number of local newspapers with one to three issues a week grew by 25 per cent, from 116 to 143. The growth for weekly newspapers lasted until 2008 (the year of the financial crisis). In 1990, Norway had 39 weekly