One of the most important criteria dividing countries on developed and developing is technological level of the economy which is a derivative of R&D. We showed in the article, that only a rather small group of voivodships was characterized by a full efficiency of converting the expenditure into effects. Low values of efficiency indices pay attention for all ineffective provinces. It won’t be possible to say about none of them, that it found near the efficiency border which accompanied by large differences between decision making units.
The non-radial DEA model showed that both the internal expenditures (in converting into the thousand residents) and the personnel employed in the R+D work are not used efficiently and what’s more in the considerable degree wherein a first of said inputs research units managed by a little more effectively.
Chen Y. (2005), Information valuation for Information Lifecycle Management [in:] Second International Conference on Autonomic Computing, “IEEE Computer Society”, Seattle.
Fraser P., Moultrie J., Gregory M. (2002), The Use of Maturity Models/Grids as a Tool in Assessing Product Development Capability [in:] Proceedings of IEM, Cambridge, pp. 244–249.
Jin H., Xiong M., Wu S. (2008), Information value evaluation model for ILM [in:] Ninth ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking, and
Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej [Entrepreneurship and innovation in the development of the regions of Central and Eastern Europe], Wydawnictwo Naukowe UMK, Toruń.
Lichniak I. (2011), Determinanty rozwoju przedsiębiorczości w Polsce [Determinants of the development of entrepreneurship in Poland] , Oficyna Wydawnicza SGH, Warsaw.
Mazur K. (2004), Specjalne strefy ekonomiczne jako nowe obszary przemysłowe [Special Economic Zones as a new industrial areas] , Wydawnictwo Politechniki Śląskiej, Gliwice.
Ministry of Regional Development (2007), Raport. Rozwój
The article presents fragments of the author's own research, which was conducted among innovative managers. A thesis is advanced, that competencies and innovative behaviors of managers are also sources of formation of team and organizational spirit that fosters creativity and innovation of employees. The study focused on the factors influencing the innovation competence. The author pays particular attention to the subjective conditioning as well as to the educational and organizational factors, emphasizing their importance. Based on the results of the research, the article also presents a silhouette of an innovative manager. The author also highlights the need to develop innovative competencies, both in the executive and general education.
Banerjee S.B. (2008), Corporate social responsibility: The good, the bad and the ugly, “Critical Sociology”, 34.1, pp. 51-79.
Behling O. (1980), The case for the natural science model for research in organizational behavior and organization theory, “Academy of Management Review”, 5.4, pp. 483-490.
Blunt P. (1995), Cultural relativism,‘good’governance and sustainable human development, “Public Administration and Development”, 15.1, pp. 1-9.
Brewer G.D., The challenges of
(Eds.), Handbook of organization studies , London: SAGE.
Von Hippel E. (2005), Democratizing Innovation , MIT Press, Cambridge, London.
Wyer R.S., Albarracin D. (2005), Belief Formation, Organization and Change: Cognitive and Motivational Influences [in:] D. Albarracin, B.T. Johnson, M.P. Zanna (eds.), The handbook of Attitudes , Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publisher, Mahwah, New Jersey – London.
Zacher L.W. (2007), Transformacje społeczeństw: od informacji do wiedzy , C.H. Beck, Warszawa.
Zizlavsky O. (2012), The Development and
The economic changes in recent years have had a significant impact on the development of modern management concepts that are being used increasingly in modern enterprises. Their aim is to improve the operations of these companies, in order to maintain a competitive edge on the market. One of these methods is outsourcing. It is of great importance in the development of today's businesses and is among the most widely used concepts. It promotes effective management of the enterprise and can be used in almost every area of the unit, which helps it to function. The area of applying outsourcing that has been raised in this article is accounting outsourcing. The study provides information on the scope of accounting services usually performed outside the enterprise, demonstrates the specificity of these services in Polish conditions, and shows the impact of outsourcing on costs generated by the company. The article concludes with a summary, which is the general analysis SWOT of Polish accounting outsourcing.
The insurance system is a very important element of the financial system of a country. As institutions of public trust, insurance companies play a crucial role in the process of transforming savings into investments, which directly affects the country’s economic development. Maintaining the insurance sector in a good financial condition guarantees stability of the financial system and economic development of Poland.
The article aims to present the essence of operations of insurance companies as financial institutions, present their role in the economy, and describe various methods of appraising their financial condition.
In order to fulfil the above goals, a research hypothesis is put forward stating that the financial condition of the insurance sector in Poland deteriorated in the analysed period as a result of an adverse impact of turbulence in financial markets and problems in financial systems in the European Union countries.
The development of the idea of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) depends mainly on the changes in international market and growing competition between countries and enterprises. These factors influence on the behavior of enterprises. This means that the goal of business action is not only profit-making but also fulfilling social needs. The goal of this paper is to present and assess social in Poland. Starting with the concept and scope of CSR, the article presents benefits from responsible business activity and implementation of this idea in Poland.
The research carried out in 2012 shows that the main implementers of CSR are large firms with foreign capital. They know the idea of CSR from the experience of Western firms. The main objective is their image and to build better relations with their environment. On this background the article shows the ranking of companies participating in “Leader of Philanthropy” competition. It allowed to choose four firms as an example of good practices in social engagement. Social activity of chosen firms was addressed to:
the sick, the disabled and the poor,
The contacted research proves that social engagement of Polish firms is at the early stage of development. The number of firms increase, but there are mainly large companies. The main reason that the small business share in social engagement results from the limited amount of financial resources at their disposal.