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Rock and Roll Styles and Genres in Poland (1957–1973)

Abstract

This paper describes the process of establishing rock and roll styles and genres (as defined by Allan F. Moore) in Polish musical culture. My Ph.D. research has revealed three phases in this process. Phase 1: imitation (1957-1962), phase 2: Polonisation (1962-1967) and phase 3: artistic re-interpretation (1967-1973). I present the detailed characteristics of each phase (i.e. their socio-political context, the phenomenon of cover versions, the fusion of rock and roll with local folk music, the development of original artistic language) as well as providing musical examples (mostly from Czesław Niemen’s recordings, which remain one of the most interesting examples of Polish popular music).

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The Music Repertoire of the Society of Jesus in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1565–1773)

Abstract

The paper presents the research project coordinated by the University of Warsaw and financed by the Minister of Science and Higher Education as part of the “Tradition 1a” module of the National Programme for the Development of Humanities. The main task of this research project is the documentation of the Jesuit music repertory produced and disseminated on the territory of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

The results of the project work will be published in a new editorial series, which will include catalogues of sources and music iconography, monographs, databases and critical editions of music-related sources of Jesuit provenience. The publications will appear in print and on-line.

The expected research results will serve not only musicologists, but also representatives of other fields of humanities. The work of the international research team is hoped to restore to the national heritage the forgotten monuments of Jesuit musical culture and should lead to a reliable assessment of their historical value.

The results of the research of the international team of scientists will influence the present-day sense of identity of the countries which in the past jointly formed the literary culture our Commonwealth.

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Kolberg and Jewish Music

Abstract

The world of the Jews must have attracted Kolberg, who as an educated member of the intelligentsia must have been conscious of what was happening in Judaism in his times. The nineteenth century was indeed a time of the flourishing Hasidism, the travelling hazanim, the development of the Jewish Enlightenment movement (the Haskalah), a great numbers of Jewish Tanzhaus openings. Jewish themes also appear in almost every volume of Kolberg’s Complete Works. However, Jews only formed the backdrop for the events taking place among Poles. Only in the case of a few records left by Kolberg can we surmise that the musical performers were themselves Jewish. This is most likely true of five songs with texts in the Yiddish language. More melodies set down in writing from the Jews or from the repertoire taken over by Polish musicians are probably to be found among the pieces without verbal text or referred to by Kolberg as ‘dances’. It is unknown whether Jewish musicians played Jewish melodies for Kolberg, but we cannot exclude the possibility of their performances constituting a basis for some transcriptions of pieces that were not marked as Jewish.

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Paweł Hendrich’s Emergent Sound System

Abstract

Paweł Hendrich’s compositions can be compared to macrocrystals - solids composed of numerous small and identical elements, constructed in accordance with a strict pattern. Importantly, the same internal crystal structure can produce forms highly diversified with regard to external shape. Similarly, this composer’s works are very precisely structured already on the level of individual sounds, but this structure is only a tool for the creation of very clear musical macroforms. The idea of emergence - of new values resulting from the combination of simple elements - is of key importance to this composer.

The paper presents the principles of organising music material in the works of Paweł Hendrich. These are, among others: periodicity, multilayered structures, permutations and flexibility. These ideas are reflected in the musical work in many dimensions, both on the level of microand macro-structure. Their application exerts a major impact on the forms created by the composer.

With the development of his musical language, the composer transforms his initial material more and more radically. Simple elements and processes that underlie the construction of his works become progressively more and more difficult to reconstruct, largely due to the application of a computer in the composition process. A comprehensive look at Paweł Hendrich’s entire output of compositions proves that his work is emergent as a whole. With each new piece, a new element is added, but all of them form a coherent system. No wonder, then, that one of the composer’s works bears the telling title of Emergon.

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Beyond the Dogma of a ‘National Style’: Dance-Type Narration in Stanislaw Moniuszko’s Operas

Abstract

A privileged position in discourse on 19th-century opera is occupied by narration concerning the emancipation of national styles. In order to work out a fresh approach in scientific study of this subject, it seems crucial that we should abandon the ethnocentric perspective. This was one of the main postulates of Jean-Marie Pradier’s utopian project of ethnoscenology. Importantly, Pradier also stressed the physical aspect of all stage practice. In the times of Rossini, Verdi, Gounod and Moniuszko, the physicality of the spectacle was associated not only with singing, but also with choreography. The links between 19th-century opera and its broadly conceived dance component are the subject of a highly inspiring essay by Maribeth Clark, whose arguments, theses and conclusions we also present here in detail.

Stanisław Moniuszko’s operatic style is commonly associated with Polish dance rhythms. Still, salon dance should also be considered, apart from national dances, as one of the keys to the composer’s entire oeuvre. In a study of his stage works from both the Vilnius and the Warsaw periods, the dance idiom will not be limited to the presence of dance rhythms in the protagonists’ arias or to the ballet sections. Dance qualities can be discerned in Moniuszko’s music on a much deeper, fundamental level of the construction of operatic narration. Dance is frequently a hidden mechanism that serves as an axis of development for the presented events or as an element that organises the dramaturgy of entire scenes and instrumental passages.

This paper is an attempt to take a fresh look at the role of the dance idiom in Moniuszko’s operatic narrations, an initial reconnaissance, in which I point to the sources of the composer’s inspirations and illustrate my theses with specific examples.

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Kolberg’s opinions on changes in the choice of instruments in 19th century folk music

Abstract

In the second half of the 19th century, when Oskar Kolberg conducted his folkloristic and ethnographic work, folk song and music were still alive and, to a great extent, functioned in their natural culture context. However, already at that time, and especially in the last decades of the century, gradual changes were taking place within folk tradition. Those changes were brought about by industrialization and factors in the development of urban civilization, which varied in intensity depending on the region. Folk music was also influenced by those changes and they themselves were further fuelled by the final (third) Partition of Poland by Austria, Prussia and Russia, declared in 1795 and lasting till the end of World War I.

Oskar Kolberg noticed and described changes in the musical landscape of villages and little towns of the former Polish Republic in the 19th century, as well as in the choice of instruments. To be quite precise, musical instruments are not featured as a separate subject of his research, but various references, though scattered, are quite numerous, and are presented against a social, cultural and musical background, which provides an opportunity to draw certain conclusions concerning folk music instrumental practice.

However, changes in the makeup of folk music ensembles resulted in the disappearance of traditional instruments, which were being replaced by the newer, factory-produced ones. This process worried Kolberg and he noticed its symptoms also in a wider, European context, where bagpipes or dulcimers were being supplanted not only by “itinerant orchestras” but also by barrel organs or even violins. Writing about our country, Poland, he combined a positive opinion on the subject of improvised and expressive performance of folk violinists with a negative one on clarinet players and mechanical instruments.

Summing up, the musical landscape of Polish villages and both small and larger towns was definitely influenced in the 19th century by the symptoms of phenomena which much later acquired a wider dimension and were defined as globalization and commercialization. Sensing them, Oskar Kolberg viewed the well-being of the traditional culture heritage with apprehension.

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Research on Popular Music conducted at the Institute of Musicology of the University of Warsaw in 1953–2015

the Late 1970s and the 1980s: The Case of Brygada Kryzys ], supervisor: A. Markuszewska. Warsaw: Institute of Musicology, University of Warsaw. Wolicka, D. (2013). Flet w twórczości zespołu King Crimson. Analiza wybranych przykładów [ The Flute in the Works of King Crimson – Analyses of Selected Examples ], supervisor: S. Żerańska-Kominek. Warsaw: Institute of Musicology, University of Warsaw. Wójcicki, W. (2007). Rozwój rynku fonograficznego w Polsce w latach 1989–2004 na przykładzie działalności wybranych firm wydawniczych [ The Development of the

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Witold Szalonek Seen Through His Own Views

-83. Hiller, L.A. (1964). Informationstheorie und Computermusik. In: E. Thomas (Ed.), Darmstädter Beiträge zur Neuen Musik, Vol. 8. Mainz: Schott & Söhne. Humphries, C. (1998). Perspektywy rozwoju badań nad muzyką na przykładzie twórczości Witolda Szalonka [Perspectives for the Development of Research on Music on the Example of Witold Szalonek’s Oeuvre], Dysonanse. No. 1, p. 32. Humphries, C. (2008). Sonorism and Sonoristics in the music of Witold Szalonek, Muzyka. No. 1, pp. 93-105. Liszka, M. (1990). Piekarskie dzwony w

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National Dances in the Canon of Polish Culture

. Starczewski, F. (1900–1). Die polnischen Tänze, Sammelbände der Internationalen Musikgesellschaft . Vol. 2, pp. 673–718. Stęszewska, Z. (1979). Z zagadnień kształtowania się stylu narodowego w muzyce polskiej XVI–XVIII wieku, w oparciu o źródła muzyki tanecznej [On the Development of the National Style in Polish Music, 16 th –18 th Centuries, on the Basis of Dance Music Sources], Muzyka . No. 4, pp. 77–82. Stęszewska, Z. (1981). Muzyczne zagadnienia tańców narodowych [Problems of Music in National Dances]. In: I. Ostrowska (Ed.), Różne formy tańców polskich

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