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Development of sol-gel derived gahnite anti-reflection coating for augmenting the power conversion efficiency of polycrystalline silicon solar cells

Abstract

The present research is focused on developing ZnAl2O4 (gahnite) spinel as an antireflection coating material for enhanced energy conversion of polycrystalline silicon solar cells (PSSC). ZnAl2O4 has been synthesized using dual precursors, namely aluminum nitrate nonahydrate and zinc nitrate hexahydrate in ethanol media. Diethanolamine has been used as a sol stabilizer in sol-gel process for ZnAl2O4 nanosheet fabrication. ZnAl2O4 nanosheet was deposited layer-by-layer (LBL) on PSSC by spin coating method. The effect of ZnAl2O4 coating on the physical, electrical, optical properties and temperature distribution in PSSC was investigated. The synthesized antireflection coating (ARC) material bears gahnite (ZnAl2O4) spinel crystal structure composed of two dimensional (2D) nanosheets. An increase in layer thickness proves the LBL deposition of ARC on the PSSC substrate. The ZnAl2O4 2D nanosheet comprising ARC on the PSSC was tested and it exhibited a maximum of 93 % transmittance, short-circuit photocurrent of 42.364 mA/cm2 and maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) 23.42 % at a low cell temperature (50.2 °C) for three-layer ARC, while the reference cell exhibited 33.518 mA/cm2, 15.74 % and 59.1 °C, respectively. Based on the results, ZnAl2O4 2D nanosheets have been proven as an appropriate ARC material for increasing the PCE of PSSC.

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A review of the bioretention system for sustainable storm water management in urban areas

, C.J., Boyer, T. H., Dukes, M.D., Toor, G.S., Cisar, J.L. (2013): Evaluating nutrient impacts in urban watersheds: Challenges and research opportunities. Environ. Pollut; 173 , 138–149. [8] U.S. Enviornmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. (2003): “Protenting Water quality from Urban Runoff.” Document No. EPA 841-F-03-003. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/46/Natural_%26_impervious_cover_diagrams_EPA.jpg . (accessed on 13 July 2016). [9] Prince George’s County. Low-Impact Development Design Strategies, An Integrated Design

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Development of a Flexible Software Solution for Controlling Unmanned Air Vehicles via the Internet

.150170 [6] N. Santos, A. Raimundo, D. Peres, P. Sebastião, and N. Souto, “Development of a software platform to control squads of unmanned vehicles in real-time,” in 2017 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems, ICUAS 2017, 2017, pp. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICUAS.2017.7991528 [7] H. Choi, M. Geeves, B. Alsalam, and F. Gonzalez, “Open source computer-vision based guidance system for UAVs on-board decision making,” in IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1109/AERO.2016.7500600 [8] G. Crespo, G

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Development of calcium titanium oxide coated silicon solar cells for enhanced voltage generation capacity

1 Introduction Development of several viable renewable energy resources is in progress. Photovoltaics (PV) is one among those energy resources that provide clean and sustainable energy technology to replace fossil fuels [1] . In order to enhance the utilization of PV, power conversion efficiency (PCE) and cost factor of silicon solar cells need to be considered. Multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells are cheaper and account for 50 % of PV modules manufactured worldwide due of their low manufacturing cost, high conversion efficiency under tropical

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Solar and Green Building Guidelines for Hot Arid Climate in India

Abstract

There are, presently, two schools of thought when it comes to designing buildings that promote sustainable development. One school emphasizes materials use and ‘‘green’’ buildings, while the other emphasizes energy use and energy efficient buildings. The promoters of ‘‘green’’ buildings often claim that the reduced energy use during operation of the low energy and solar buildings is counteracted by the increased embodied energy in these buildings. This paper gives categorical analysis of the technologies available for Low energy and green architecture and emphasizes the need to integrate both in residential buildings to of lower the energy use in operation during the lifetime in a residential building in hot arid climate. The results also show that there should be little difference between the approaches of the two schools of thought. The best buildings will generally be those that are both low energy, and ‘‘green’’. This paper also gives policy guidelines to integrate them in the building bye-laws for hot arid climate

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Influence Of Volcanic Scoria On Mechanical Strength, Chemical Resistance And Drying Shrinkage Of Mortars

Abstract

In the study, three types of cement have been prepared; one CEM I type (the control sample) and two blended cements: CEM II/A-P and CEM II/B-P (EN 197-1), each of them with three replacement levels of volcanic scoria: (10 %, 15 %, 20 % wt.) and (25 %, 30 %, 35 % wt.), respectively. Strength development of mortars has been investigated at 2, 7, 28 and 90 days curing. Evaluation of chemical resistance of mortars containing scoria-based cements has been investigated through exposure to 5 % sulphate and 5 % sulphuric acid solutions in accordance with ASTM C1012 & ASTM 267, respectively. Drying shrinkage has been evaluated in accordance with ASTM C596. Test results showed that at early ages, the mortars containing CEM II/B-P binders had strengths much lower than that of the control mortar. However, at 90 days curing, the strengths were comparable to the control mortar. In addition, the increase of scoria significantly improved the sulphate resistance of mortars. Further, an increase in scoria addition improved the sulphuric acid resistance of mortar, especially at the early days of exposure. The results of drying shrinkage revealed that the CEM II/B-P mortar bars exhibited a greater contraction when compared to the control mortar, especially at early ages. However, drying shrinkage of mortars was not influenced much at longer times.

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Critical View on Daylighting Through Solar Bottle Bulb

References [1] Agarwal, S. G., Barnes, D.F. and Cabraal, R. A. (2005), “Productive Uses of Energy for Rural Development” [electronic version], Annual Review of Environment and Resources 30, 117-144. [2] Alex (2013), The Solar Bottle Bulb Revolution, available at: http://sustainablevision.org/ index.php/the-solar-bottle-bulb-revolution/ (accessed June 8, 2014). [3] Benedetti, F., Colombo, C., Barbini, B., Campori, E. and Smeraldi, E. (2001), “Morning sunlight reduces length of hospitalization in bipolar depression”, J Affect Disorder 62, 3, 221-223. [4

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RPAS Satellite Communication Channel Based on IEEE 802.11b Standard

. 12–21, 2016. https://doi.org/10.18372/2306-1472.65.9815 [15] O. Kutsenko, S. Ilnytska, V. Kondratyuk and V. Konin, “Unmanned aerial vehicle position determination in GNSS landing system,” In Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE 4th International Conference Actual Problems of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Developments (APUAVD) , pp. 79–83, Kiev, Ukraine, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1109/APUAVD.2017 . [16] V. Kharchenko, V. Kondratyuk, S. Ilnytska and O. Kutsenko, “Recommendations to UAV navigation system test validation and some practical results,” In Proceedings of

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Turbine Blade of Gas Turbine Engine Additional Unloading by Changing the Layout of the Gravity Centre of the Shroud Shelf

REFERENCES [1] I. Ozoliņš, Ē. Ozoliņš and V. Fedotova, “Development of a Method for Calculating the Working Blade Stress Profile of the Aviation Gas Turbine Engine for Student Training”. Transport and Aerospace Engineering Journal . vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 55–66, 2018. https://doi.org/10.2478/tae-2018-0007 [2] A. A. Inozemcev and V. L. Sandrackij, Gazoturbinnye dvigateli . OAO Aviadvigatel. Perm, 2006. [3] R. J. Boyle, L. M. Agricola, A. H. Parikh, A. A. Ameri and V. K. Nagpal. “Shrouded CMC Rotor Blades for High Pressure Turbine Applications

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