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Organochloride Pesticides in Macedonian Girls With Premature Sexual Development

deprivation. 1999; Horm Res 51(Suppl 2): 71. Saenz de Rodriguez CA, Bongiovanni AM, Conde de Borrago L. An epidemic of precocious development in Puerto Rican children. J Pediatr 2000; 107(3): 393-396. Natural Resources Defense Council. Environment and Health: Health Effects of Pollution: In Brief: FAQ, Endocrine Disruptors ( National Toxicology Program, Center for Evaluation of risks to human reproduction. Final CERHR expert panel reports on 7

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Development of a learning portfolio to assess the competency of anesthesia residents in Thailand

medical students’ final examinations. Medical Teacher. 2001; 23:357-36. 5. Gallgher P. An evaluation of a standards based portfolio. Nurse Education Today.2001; 21: 409-16. 6. O’Sullivan PS, Reckase MD, McClain T, Savidge MA, Chardy JA. Demonstration of portfolios to assess competency of residents. Adv Health Sci Educ. 2004; 9:309-23. 7. Clay AS, Petrusa E, Harker M, Andolsek K. Development of a web-based, specialty-specific portfolio. Medical Teacher. 2007; 29:311-6. 8. Jarvis RM, O’ Sullivan PS, McClain T

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Different Dynamics of Sensory-Motor Development and Behavior During the Transitional Period in Puppies: Preliminary Results

Sci. 600, 86-98. 6. Overall, K.L. (2013). Canine behavior. Normal canine behavior and ontogeny: neurological and social development, signaling and normal canine behaviors. In: Elsevier (Ed.), Manual of clinical behavioral medicine for dogs and cats. First Ed. (pp. 123-128). Mosby Year Book, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri. 7. Scott, J., Fuller, J. (1965). Genetics and the social behavior of the dog. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. 8. Uzunova, K., Stoyanchev, K., Semerdzhiev, V., Rusenov, A., Penchev, I

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Duplication of the SOX3 gene in an sry-negative 46,XX male with associated congenital anomalies of kidneys and the urinary tract: Case report and review of the literature

Introduction Sex in humans is genetically determined and is defined by the sex chromosomes (XY for males and XX for females) and by the development of gender specific anatomy, physiology and behavior. A complete or partial mismatch between genetic sex and phenotypic sex results in disorders of sexual development (DSD). Disorders of sexual development in humans have a frequency of at least one in 100 live births [ 1 ], while the frequency of "corrective" genital surgery is estimated to be between one and two per 1000 live births. There is a wide spectrum of

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The age of onset of pubertal development in healthy Thai boys in Khon Kaen, Thailand

The age of onset of puberty varies between ethnic groups and depends on genetic and environmental factors. Normally girls enter puberty approximately two years earlier than boys. The normal ranges of pubertal onset came from the studies of British children from the 1960s by Tanner and Marshall [ 1 , 2 ]. Based on these studies, the traditional cut-offs for precocious puberty are development of secondary sex characteristics before the age of 9 years in boys and 8 years in girls. Enlargement of the testes (gonadarche) is the first sign of pubertal development in

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The new system of the talent development program in Hungarian soccer

References 1. Benzenleitner O., Bognar J., Révész L., Paksi J., Csáki I., Géczi G. (2013) Motivation and motivations climate among elite hummer throwers. Biomed. Hum. Kinet., 5: 6-10. 2. Bognár J., Trzaskoma-Bicsérdy G., Révész L., Géczi G. (2006) Parents’ role in sport talent development, [in Hungaran]. Kaloka, 1-2: 86-95. 3. Brown J. (2001) Sports talent. How to identify and develop outstanding athletes. Hum. Kin., 196-206. 4. Christensen M.K. (2009) “An Eye for Talent”: Talent identification and the “Partical Sense” of Top Level Soccer

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Association between types of play materials and cognitive development among 12-month-old Thai infants: the prospective cohort study of Thai children

References 1. Hillemeier MM, Morgan PL, Farkas G, Maczuga SA. Perinatal and socioeconomic risk factors for variable and persistent cognitive delay at 24 and 48 months of age in a national sample. Matern Child Health J. 2010. [Epub ahead of print]. 2. Marques dos Santos L, Neves dos Santos D, Bastos AC, Assis AM, Prado MS, Barreto ML. Determinants of early cognitive development: hierarchical analysis of a longitudinal study. Cad Saude Publica. 2008; 24: 427-37. 3. Duration and developmental timing of poverty and

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Morphology, Morphometry and Histogenesis of the Prenatal Dromedary (Camelus Dromedarius) Spleen

). Histomorphometric study of the prenatal development of the circumvallate papillae of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Anat Physiol. 5, 1. 7. Maina, M.M., Usende, I.L., Igwenagu, E., Onyiche, T.E., Yusuf, Z.M., Ntung, N.O. (2014). Gross, histological and histomorphometric studies on the spleen of one humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) found in the semi-arid region of North Eastern Nigeria. J. Vet. Adv. 4 (10): 703-711. 8. Jaji, A.Z., Kwari, H.D., Ribadu, A.Y., Sivachelvan, M

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Human Health Risk Assessment Approach for Urban Park Development

fractions based on fate and transport considerations. Volume 3. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group Series. Amherst (MA): Amherst Scientific Publishing; 1997. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group. Development of fraction specific reference doses (RfDs) and reference concentrations (RfCs) for total petroleum hydrocarbons. Volume 4. Total Petroleum Hydrocaron Criteria Working Group Series. Amherst (MA): Amherst Scientific Publishers; 1997. Health Canada. 1994. Human health risk assessment for

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Chemical composition and antioxidant, cytotoxic, and insecticidal potential of Valeriana alliariifolia in Turkey


Valeriana is a common plant species used for various healing purposes in folk medicine since antiquity. This study investigates the phytochemical profile, antioxidant, cytotoxic, and insecticidal activity of Valeriana alliariifolia Adams, a species that has traditionally been used in Turkey. For the analyses we prepared four root extracts of V. alliariifolia Adams using hexane (HM1), chloroform (CM1), ethanol (EM1), and water (WM1) for maceration. Additionally, two extracts were also prepared from its roots by maceration separately with ethanol (EM2) and water (WM2). One sample was prepared as a water infusion (WI), according to the procedure used in Turkish traditional medicine. The 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity tests showed that ethanol extracts had the strongest antioxidant activity: EM1 (IC50 – DPPH: 17.694 µg/mL; ABTS: 23.8 µg/mL) and EM2 (IC50 – DPPH: 20 µg/mL; ABTS: 21.5 µg/mL). The hexane extract, HM1, was the most cytotoxic (IC50<10 µg/mL against HepG2 and HUVEC) and EM2 strongly cytotoxic (IC50<10 µg/mL against HepG2 and IC50: 11.96 µg/mL against HUVEC). The extracts with demonstrated cytotoxic activities were further examined to check their insecticidal activity against adult female mosquito Aedes aegypti and first instar Ae. aegypti larvae. HM1 was the most effective (90±10 %), which was consistent with its cytotoxic activity. Because of the high antioxidant, cytotoxic, and insecticidal activities, we ran phytochemical analyses of the HM1, EM1, and EM2 extracts with GC-MS (for HM1) and LC-MS/MS (for EM1 and EM2). We also analysed the composition of the essential oil obtained from V. alliariifolia roots by micro-distillation in order to compare its content with HM1, which contains volatile compounds. Phytochemical analyses revealed that the major compound in HM1 was isovaleric acid (16 %) and in the essential oil 1,8-cineole (2.9 %). EM1 and EM2 contained 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid), verbascoside (acteoside), and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid as major components. In the light of our findings and available literature, we can conclude that V. alliariifolia has a good bioactive potential that could be used for different purposes, including the development of new agents for the treatment of various diseases. The difference in the content between the essential oil and HM1 was remarkable. It suggests that the variability observed in the activity of the samples was a result of composition and that, therefore, the aim of treatment should dictate which type of preparation is to be selected. An added value of our study is that it determined verbascoside and methylquercetin rutinoside for the first time in the Valeriana extracts.

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