Development, 23 , 151–159.
Sander, W. L. (2000). Where are we going in the field of the infant mental health? Infant Mental Health Journal, 21 (1–2), 5–20.
Sander, W. L. (2002). Thinking differently. Principles of process in living systems and the specificity of being known. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 12 (1), 11–42.
Sander, W. L., Amadei, G, & Bianchi, I. (Eds.) (2008). Living systems, Evolving consciousness, and the emerging person New York, NY: The Analytic Press.
Stern, D. N. (1971). A micro-analysis of mother-infant interaction: Behavior
force field analysis to organization field assessment. Organization Development Journal, 26 (4), 89–103.
Elo, S., & Kyngäs, H. (2008). The qualitative content analysis process. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62 (1), 107–115.
Fox, N. J. (1995). Professional models of school absence associated with home responsibilities. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 16 (2), 221–242.
Hergenhahn, B. R., & Henley, T. B. (2014). An introduction to the history of psychology . Wadsworth: Cengage Learning.
Kaiser, S., & Schulze, G. C. (2015). Between
Giancarlo Trombini, Anna Corazza and Gerhard Stemberger
als eine Funktion der Gesamtsituation (1946). English version: Behavior and development as a function of the total situation. In D. Cartwright (ed.), Field theory in social science. Selected theoretical papers . Wahington: A.P.A., 262–278.
Mazzacane, F. (2013). Le vicissitudini del campo analitico. In Ferro A. (a cura di), Psicoanalisi oggi . Roma: Carocci Ed.
Metzger W. (1962). Schöpferische Freiheit . 2. Auflage. Frankfurt: Waldemar Kramer.
Metzger, W. (1972). The Phenomenal-Perceptual Field as a Central Steering Mechanism. In J.R. Royce and W
Education for Tolerance and Co-Responsibility in Freedom in the Scriptures of Kurt Lewin and Wolfgang Metzger
In this article, classical writings of Kurt Lewin (1890-1947) and Wolfgang Metzger (1899-1979) concerning education for democracy and tolerance are presented. Starting with a definition of „group” and the discussion of the meaning of groups for the individual life, especially the experimental studies of Kurt Lewin, Ronald Lippitt and Raph K. White in 1937/38 on different group atmospheres under the influence of „democratic” vs. „autocratic” vs. „laissez faire” leading style are presented again, in order to give an example for the meaning of atmosphere influences on personal development, creativity and aggression – all topics concerning actual school situations and the daily experience of pupils and teachers. The collection of writings concerning education for democracy and tolerance include some of Lewin’s writings on minority problems and Metzger’s fundamental thougts on political education as a special application of productive thinking in Wertheimer’s sense. Some possibilities of how to change prejudices and to develop tolerance in Lewin’s and Metzger’s sense are presented. As a conclusion, some ideas for actual school life and possibilities to make pupils tolerant and able to participate actively in a democratic society are developed.
A Multiple-Field-Approach to the Understanding of Human Experience
In 1915 the Danish psychologist Edgar Rubin describes in his famous work on figure-ground perception, the phenomenon that when you look attentively at a picture, a second, virtual ego arises, breaking away from the viewer-ego to wander around in the picture along the contours of the depicted. In 1982, German Gestalt psychologist Edwin Rausch expanded this observation of the emergence of a second phenomenal ego to the conclusion that not only does a second phenomenal ego emerge, but with it a second phenomenal total field, ie a second phenomenal world with its own phenomenal ego and an own phenomenal environment of this ego.
Several years ago, I proposed a multi-field-approach in psychotherapy building on this research. This approach involves three levels:
First, the level of phenomenological observation and psychological analysis of the conditions that determine the formation of such a second total field (and even further total fields), regardless of whether this occurs spontaneously or intentionally or as a result of external influences.
Second, the level of explanation of various psychic processes, which in the field of psychotherapy have been explained so far mainly on the basis of depth psychology, and the conceptualization of the therapeutic situation and therapeutic processes from a Gestalt psychological perspective.
Third, finally, the level of practical application of such insights on the development of appropriate procedures and interventions that can promote or defer the emergence of such second or multiple fields in psychotherapy.
The present article introduces the multi-field approach, especially at the first level, and refers to research and discussion on mind wandering, imagining, daydreaming and dissociation.
Renata Gambino, Grazia Pulvirenti and Elisabetta Vinci
Bernstein, J. H. (2015). Transdisciplinarity: A review of its origins, development, and current issues. Journal of Research Practice , 11(1). Available from: http://jrp.icaap.org/index.php/jrp/article/view/510/412
Cometa, M. (2018). Perchè le storie ci aiutano a vivere. La letteratura Necessaria. Milano: Raffaello Cortina Editore.
Newen, A., de Bruin, L., & Gallagher, S. (2018). The Oxford Handbook of 4E Cognition , Oxford: OUP.
Uboldi, S. (2018). Neurobiologia della finzione. Broni: Altravista Edizioni.
The Affiliative Imprinting Phenomenon in the Modern Study of Animal Cognition
illusions: An interesting tool to investigate developmental dyslexia and autism spectrum disorder. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10 , 175.
Gottlieb, G. (1979). Development of species identification in ducklings: V. Perceptual differentiation in the embryo. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 93 , 831–854.
Heaton, M. B. (1972). Prenatal auditory discrimination in the wood duck ( Aix sponsa ). Animal Behavior, 20 , 421–424.
Hetch, H., & Proffitt, D. R. (1995). The price of expertise: Effects of experience on the water level task
York, NY: Guilford, pp. 677–691.
Fagiano, M. (2016). Pluralistic conceptualizations of empathy. Journal of Speculative Philosophy, 30 (1), 27–44.
Feshbach, N., & Roe, K. (1968). Empathy in six- and seven-years-old. Child Development , 39 , 133–145.
Freedberg, D., & Gallese, V. (2007). Motion, emotion and empathy in esthetic experience. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11 (5), 197–203. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2007.02.003
Gallese, V., & Guerra, M. (2012). Embodying movies: Embodied simulation and film studies. Cinema, 3 , 183–210.
Brecht, B. (2010). Trommeln in der Nacht . Komödie. 19. Auflage. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp (Original work published 1923).
Brecht, B. (2002). Die Dreigroschen Oper ( L’opera da tre soldi , E. Castellani Trans.). Torino: Einaudi. (Original work published 1928).
Brecht, B. (1948). A short Organum for the theatre . Retrieved from tenstakonsthall.se/uploads/139-Brecht_A_Short_Organum_for_the_Theatre.pdf [16.01.2019].
Brecht, B. (1964). Brecht on theatre. The development of an aesthetic . New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and
/New York, NY: Routledge.
Merleau-Ponty, M. (2010). Child psychology and pedagogy. The Sorbonne lectures 1949-1952. (T. Welsh, Trans.). Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
Nagy, E. (2008). Innate intersubjectivity: Newborns’ sensitivity to communication disturbance. Developmental Psychology, 44(6), 1779-1784.
Reddy, V. (2008). How infants know minds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Rochat, P. (2004). Emerging co-awareness. In G. Bremner & A. Slater (Eds.), Theories of infant development (pp