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Nonlinguistic Factors that Affect the Degree of Foreign Accent in Second Language Mandarin

. 1997. Accent, intelligibility and comprehensibility: Evidence from four L1s. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 20. 1–16. Derwing, Tracey M. & Murray J. Munro. 2013. The development of L2 oral skills in two L1 groups: A 7-year study. Language Learning 63(2). 163–185. Derwing, Tracey M. & Marian J. Rossiter. 2003. The effects of pronunciation instruction on the accuracy, fluency, and complexity of L2 accented speech. Applied Language Learning 13(1). 1–17. Flege, James, Elaine M. Frieda & Takeshi Nozawa. 1997. Amount of native-language (L1

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Raising or Lowering?—A Case Study of Alethic ACQ in Chinese and Southeast Asian Languages

grammaticalization area in the Southeast Asian languages]. Zhongguo Yuwen [Chinese Language] 3. 195–211. Xu, Jie. 2012. Cizui shao dan yuzui duo—hanyu yufa tedian de chongxin gaikuo [Less affixes, but more clitics—revisiting Chinese grammatical features]. Huazhong Shifan Daxue Xuebao (Renwen Sheke Ban) [Journal of Huazhong Normal University (Humanities and Social Sciences)] 2. 113–118. Yang, Ping. 1989. “Dongci + de + binyu” jiegou de chansheng he fazhan [On the origin and development of the structure “verb + de + object”]. Zhongguo Yuwen [Chinese Language] 2

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Intonation and Particles as Speech Act Modifiers: A Syntactic Analysis

comparative analysis of invariant tags in three varieties of English. English World-Wide 31(3). 288–310. Denis, Derek 2015. The development of pragmatic markers in Canadian English . Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Toronto. Denis, Derek, Martina Wiltschko & Alex d’Arcy. 2016. Deconstructed multi-functionality: Confirmational variation in Canadian English through time. Talk presented at DiPVaC3, University of Ottawa. May. Groenendijk, Jeroen & Martin Stokhof. 1984. On the semantics of questions and the pragmatics of answers. Varieties of

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Parameter Preservation at the Syntax-PF Interface: The Ba Construction Revisited

dissertation. Vikner, Sten. 2006. Object shift. In Martin Everaert & Henk van Riemsdijk (eds.), The Blackwell companion to syntax, vol. III, 392-436. Oxford: Blackwell. Wei, Pei-chuan. 1993. Gu Hanyu jieci “yu” de yanbian lüeshi [A brief history of the development of the preposition yu in Ancient Chinese]. Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology Academia Sinica 62. 717-786. Zhang, Cheng. 2002. Hanyu jieci cizu cixu de lishi yanbian [The historical evolution of the word order of prepositional phrases in Chinese

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