complete collection of Manx Language archive recordings made by the Irish Folklore Commission in 1948. Douglas: Manx National Heritage. Audio tracks now available at https://www.youtube.com/user/ManxNationalHeritage (accessed 11 May 017).
Nahir, Moshe. 1998. Micro language planning and the revival of Hebrew: A schematic framework. Language in Society (27). 335-357.
Ní Ghearáin, Helena. 2011. The problematic relationship between institutionalised Irish terminology development and the Gaeltacht speech community: dynamics of acceptance and
Since the arrival of the Internet and its tools, computer technology has become of considerable significance to both teachers and students, and it is an obvious resource for foreign language teaching and learning. The paper presents the results of a study which aimed to determine the effect of the application of Internet resources on the development of learner autonomy as well as the impact of greater learner independence on attainment in English as a foreign language. The participants were 46 Polish senior high school students divided into the experimental group (N = 28) and the control (N = 18) group. The students in the experimental group were subjected to innovative instruction with the use of the Internet and the learners in the control group were taught in a traditional way with the help of the coursebook. The data were obtained by means questionnaires, interviews, learners’ logs, an Internet forum, observations as well as language tests, and they were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results show that the experimental students manifested greater independence after the intervention and they also outperformed the controls on language tests.
-esse in Early Middle English”, Kwartalnik Neofilolgiczny 55: 23-31. in press “The semantic development and productivity of the OE suffix -isc in Middle English”, Proceedings of The Sixth International Conference on Middle English (ICOME6), Cambridge, 24 - 26 July 2008.
Dalton-Puffer, Christiane 1996 The French influence on Middle English morphology: A corpus-based study of derivation . Berlin - New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Dalton-Puffer, Christiane - Claire Cowie 2000 “Diachronic word-formation and studying changes in
, MA: Pearson
Dunmore, Stuart. 2014. Bilingual life after school?: Language use, ideologies and attitudes among Gaelic-medium educated adults. University of Edinburgh: Unpublished Doctoral Thesis
Dunmore, Stuart. 2017. “Immersion education outcomes and the Gaelic community: identities and language ideologies among Gaelic medium-educated adults in Scotland”, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development , 38:8: 726-741, DOI: 10.1080/01434632.2016.1249875.
Education Scotland, 2007. Curriculum for Excellence, Literacy and Gàidhlig, Principles
Archer, Dawn 2010 "Speech acts", in: Andreas H. Jucker - Irma Taavitsainen (eds.), 379-417.
Arnovick, Leslie Katherine 1990 The development of future constructions in English: The pragmatics of modal and temporal will and shall in Middle English. (Berkeley Insights in Linguistics and Semiotics 2.) New York: Peter Lang.
Arnovick, Leslie Katherine 1999 Diachronic pragmatics: Seven case studies in English illocutionary development. (Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 68
OE *durran ‘dare’ belongs to a group of the so-called preterite-present verbs which developed weak past tense forms replacing the originally strong forms throughout the paradigm. The present study hypothesizes that the potential sources of this development are related to the decay of the subjunctive mood in Old English. Further, this corpus-based study analyses the status of DARE in Old English, with the findings showing that the verb displayed both lexical and auxiliary verb characteristics. These results are juxtaposed and compared with the verb's developments in Middle English. The databases examined are the corpus of The Dictionary of Old English in Electronic Form (A-G) and the Innsbruck Computer Archive of Machine-Readable English Texts. In both cases, a search of potential forms was performed on all the files of the corpora, the raw results were then analysed in order to eliminate irrelevant instances (adjectives, nouns, foreign words, etc.). The relevant forms were examined with the aim to check the properties of DARE as a lexical and an auxiliary verb, and compare the findings with Molencki’s (2002, 2005) observations.
In its post-Norman Conquest development the Old English first person personal pronoun ic underwent transformations which, following the loss of the consonant, finally yielded the contemporary capitalised form I, contrasting with other Germanic languages, which retain a velar sound in the corresponding pronoun. The rather complex change of ich to I involves a loss of the final velar/palatal consonant, lengthening of the original short vowel, and capitalisation of the pronoun. It is argued here that the use of the capital letter was a consequence of vowel lengthening subsequent to the loss of the consonant. This seems to be confirmed by the observation that forms retaining a consonant are extremely rarely capitalised. The data adduced in the present paper will help verify as precisely as possible the distribution of the forms of that pronoun in Middle English dialects in order to determine to what extent the changes were functionally interdependent. The evidence comes from the Innsbruck Corpus of Middle English Prose.
The breakup of Old English to-infinitive: Causes and consequences
The main goal of this paper is to account for the recategorisation of the Old English to-infinitive and the consequent rise of for before the Middle English to-infinitive. We argue that the loss of D feature has two consequences. The first consequence is that V?to-D movement was lost resulting in the break-up of the (morphological and) syntactic unity of the to-infinitive. The second consequence, a consequence of the first consequence, concerns the appearance of the so-called split infinitive, i.e. the development of a preverbal adverb, negation and object position. This crucial evidence marks the drift of the infinitive towards VP behaviour. Given that D was lost in early Middle English (i.e. 1150-1200) and the split infinitive appeared in the 13th century, the paper concludes that the change from a PP to a TP status was gradual and not simultaneous with other changes.
The development of dare in the history of English has played an important role in the literature on grammatical change and (de)grammaticalization. This paper aims to clarify two issues regarding the syntax and semantics of dare in earlier English: when it is first attested with to-infinitives, and to what extent it can be said to have been semantically ‘bleached’ in a number of Old English attestations. The conclusions are, firstly, that dare is not attested with to-infinitives in Old English (paceTomaszewska 2014), and that a number of Middle English attestations that have been suggested in the literature are not convincing (paceVisser 1963–73; Beths 1999; Molencki 2005). Secondly, it is argued that the co-occurrence of dare and verbs like gedyrstlæcan ‘venture, be bold, presume’ in Old English is not an indication of semantic ‘bleaching’ of dare, and that the verb was not more ‘auxiliarized’ in Old English than it is today.