Forouzan Sadeghimahalli, Homeira Zardooz and Ravieh Golchoobian
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Olga Padała, Sebastian Masternak, Agata Makarewicz, Agnieszka Biała-Kędra and Kaja Karakuła
Aim: The aim of the study was 1) to report the case of a 15-year-old boy who developed kleptomania symptoms during methylphenidate treatment and 2) to review the available therapeutic options for kleptomania based on a literature search of Medline and Google Scholar databases (2000–2018).
Case report: For the past seven years a 15-year-old boy had participated in counselling at a psychological counselling centre because of school problems and upbringing difficulties, and had a five-year history of psychiatric treatment for ADHD. He was admitted to the Department of Psychiatry because of recurrent stealing episodes that occurred during methylphenidate treatment. During the hospitalization, the patient did not observe the therapeutic contract – he stole items from other patients. Pharmacotheraputic and psychotherapeutic treatment resulted in a partial improvement in impulsive behaviour. At discharge, he spoke critically of his previous conduct and expressed readiness to continue treatment in an outpatient setting.
Kleptomania has a very negative impact on a patient's overall well-being.
In the reported case, kleptomania developed during methylphenidate treatment.
Kleptomania should always be taken into account as a possible cause of stealing during a psychiatric examination, to avoid stigmatization of patients as criminals.
Pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy focused on the development of strategies, which can help the patient to control the urge to steal, are important components of kleptomania treatment.
Olena O. Riabovol, Dariia O. Tsymbal, Dmytro O. Minchenko, Kateryna M. Lebid-Biletska, Myroslava Y. Sliusar, Olha V. Rudnytska and Oleksandr H. Minchenko
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Horvathova L, Padova A, Tillinger A
The purpose of the paper — to present the theoretical considerations and the results of empirical study concerning on the intentional characteristics of professional consciousness (on the example of social-role attitudes of students). The structure, the dynamics of changes in the social-role attitudes of students during studies at higher educational institution in different forms of studies (full-time and part-time) and the influence of the quality of program content transferred during the education process on the shaping of students' professional awareness were also discussed.
The methodology of the research. We used the method of questioning and incomplete sentences in the research. The sample consisted of 94 students of 1 - 5 courses in the following fields: psychology, primary education, mathematics and physics. The study involved 17 part-time students and 77 full-time students. The age of full-time students was from 17 to 22 years old, and the age of part-time students was from 24 to 35 years old. Methods of mathematical statistics are used to evaluate the data.
The results of the research. The data of the empirical research of the students' social-role attitudes show that they have content peculiarities as for the specifics of manifestation at different stages of professional training and on different forms of studies at higher educational institution. Social attitudes regarding the role of “student” and the role of “professional” which have three-component structure (cognitive, emotional and behavioural) vary in degree of awareness and completeness, and are ambivalent. This increases their resilience to changes.
The discussion. The results of the studies show that the social-role attitudes undergo changes as a result of target influences in the process of professional training of future specialists at higher educational institution. Therefore, the definition of social-role attitudes features will contribute to the development of the effective technologies in the professional training of specialists.
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Silva IT, Mello APQ, Damasceno NRT
Alexandra Padova, Ivana Rokytova, Boris Mravec, Richard Kvetnansky and Peter Vargovic
Objectives. Despite extensive research efforts, mechanisms participating on development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are covered only partially. Data from the last decades indicate that various stressors, as etiological factors, may play a role of in the AD. Therefore, we investigated the effect of two acute stressors, immobilization (IMO) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), on the AD-related neuropathology.
Methods. Adult C57BL/6J mice males were exposed to a single IMO stress or a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS (250 µg/kg body weight). After terminating the experiments, the brains were removed and their cortices isolated. Gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as expression of genes implicated in the AD neuropathology were determined. In addition, mediators related to the activation of the microglia, monocytes, and perivascular macrophages were determined in brain cortices, as well.
Results. In comparison with the control animals, we found increased gene expression of proinflammatory mediators in mice brain cortex in both IMO and LPS groups. In stressed animals, we also showed an increased expression of genes related to the AD neuropathology, as well as positive correlations between genes implicated in AD development and associated neuroinflammation.
Conclusions. Our data indicate that acute exposure to a strong IMO stressor, composed of the combined physical and psychological challenges, induces similar inflammatory and other ADrelated neuropathological changes as the immune LPS treatment. Our data also indicate that cytokines are most likely released from the peripheral immune cells, as we detected myeloid cells activity, without any microglia response. We hypothesize that stress induces innate immune response in the brain that consequently potentiate the expression of genes implicated in the AD-related neuropathology.